How Centrifugal Forces Applies to Gravitational Classifiers

For many years gravitational classification has been employed as a basic tool in beneficiation of minerals and coal. While improvements have been made to increase efficiency and fields of application, the basic flow pattern has remained relatively unchanged in most gravitational classifiers. Feed slurry is introduced into a settling pool wherein the coarser solids settle … Read more

Ball Mill Capacity and Power Consumption Relationship to Mill Speed

The accepted basis of comparisons between mills of different diameter is the percentage critical speed. If n = actual mill speed, rpm, nc = calculated critical speed, rpm, np = calculated percentage critical speed, and D = inside diameter of the mill in feet, In the following analysis capacity, T, is expressed in short tons … Read more

A Physical Explanation of the Empirical Laws of Comminution

The laws of comminution of Kick and Rittinger have been debated for many years. Certain data obtained from ball mill and drop tests are found to be in approximate agreement with Rittinger’s law while other data would seem to support Kick’s law. In all these tests the energy required to produce a wide variety of … Read more

Theory of Comminution

H. J. Kamack (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington, Del.)—Rittinger’s law usually is stated to the following effect: “The work (or energy) consumed in particle size reduction is proportional to the new surface area produced.” The law has been stated substantially in this way by Taggart, Berry, Dalla Valle, Coghill and … Read more

Surface Tension of Solid Gold

In the original Udin, Shaler, and Wulff technique for measuring the surface tension of copper, variously weighted wires were allowed to extend or contract in a copper cell held at elevated temperatures in vacuum. By plotting stress vs. strain for a wire array in one test, the stress at zero strain is obtained. This is … Read more

Cadmium Recovery from Lead

Greenockite is the only known cadmium mineral of importance. It occurs rather universally, in minor concentrations, as a secondary mineral in sphalerite deposits. The world’s cadmium output is obtained through the processing of metallurgical by-products, largely from the treatment of residues from electrolytic zinc, retort zinc and lithopone plants. These sources are supplemented by the … Read more

Re-solution of Precipitated Silver in Copper-Silver Alloys

During preliminary tests on the aging of a Cu-plus 5 pct Ag alloy, a specimen which had been overaged 24 hr at 550°C was annealed in a nitrogen-hydrogen atmosphere first for 2 hr and then for an additional 28 hr at 600° C. Conceivably, for Cu-Ag alloys, the matrix-transition-precipitate precipitation sequence is reversible for the … Read more

Flotation Characteristics of Pyrrhotite with Xanthates

Pyrrhotite has long been considered a gangue mineral to be eliminated as tailing in the treatment of various sulphide ores. However, in recent years the world-wide lack of sulphur resources has called attention to this mineral as a potential source of both sulphur and iron. Its importance as an economic mineral, however, has not been … Read more

Squeeze Cementing

Laboratory and field testing of various squeeze cementing techniques and materials revealed that many improvements could be made in squeeze cementing operations. The use of a slow-pumping squeeze cementing procedure permitted the control of the quantity of cement displaced into a formation and aided in obtaining a high final squeeze pressure. Field testing indicated the … Read more