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Mineral Determination Tables

This contains a series of tables, more or less complete, of minerals arranged according to chemical composition or to certain prominent crystallographic or physical characters. These, it is believed, will be of service not only to the student, but also to the skilled mineralogist. The type used in the printing of the mineral names indicates … Read more

Native Elements

The native elements are divided into the two distinct sections of the Metals and the Non-metals, and these are connected by the transition class of the Semi-metals. The distinction between them as regards physical characters and chemical relations has already been given. The only non-metals present among minerals are carbon, sulphur, and selenium; the last, … Read more


The Silicates are in part strictly anhydrous, in part hydrous, as the zeolites and the amorphous clays, etc. Furthermore, a large number of the silicates yield more or less water upon ignition, and in many cases it is known that they are, therefore, to be regarded as basic (or acid) silicates. The line, however, between … Read more

Fire Assay

Fire Assay is the most common technique for analyzing precious metals was developed and refined almost to perfection before the 15th century (5). Government, mining and smelting companies, private analytical laboratories, universities, and geochemical exploration companies depend on fire assay techniques to produce accurate results. Fire assaying has been adopted by the court system as … Read more


The aluminates, ferrates, etc., allied chemically to the borates, have been already introduced among the oxides. They include the species of the Spinel Group.