Native Elements

The native elements are divided into the two distinct sections of the Metals and the Non-metals, and these are connected by the transition class of the Semi-metals. The distinction between them as regards physical characters and chemical relations has already been given. The only non-metals present among minerals are carbon, sulphur, and selenium; the last, … Read more


The Silicates are in part strictly anhydrous, in part hydrous, as the zeolites and the amorphous clays, etc. Furthermore, a large number of the silicates yield more or less water upon ignition, and in many cases it is known that they are, therefore, to be regarded as basic (or acid) silicates. The line, however, between … Read more

Fire Assay

Fire Assay is the most common technique for analyzing precious metals was developed and refined almost to perfection before the 15th century (5). Government, mining and smelting companies, private analytical laboratories, universities, and geochemical exploration companies depend on fire assay techniques to produce accurate results. Fire assaying has been adopted by the court system as … Read more


The aluminates, ferrates, etc., allied chemically to the borates, have been already introduced among the oxides. They include the species of the Spinel Group.

Fire Assay Furnaces and Furnace Equipment

The furnaces used in assaying are many in design, varying mainly with the kind of fuel used. The furnaces are classified as follows: (1) Pot furnaces, in which the assay is in direct contact with the fuel; (2) Muffle-furnaces, in which a muffle or receptacle containing the assay is externally heated. As the muffle-furnace is … Read more


This is an overview of setting up and conducting a flotation rate test. The test is a means of determining the flotation characteristics of an ore. It is conducted in a laboratory scale cell usually with a volume of two point five litres. The intention is to generate relationships of cumulative recovery, mass pull and … Read more