Blog of Mineral Processing (Metallurgy) Articles

Ball Mill Working Principle & Operation

In all ore dressing and milling Operations, including flotation, cyanidation, gravity concentration, and amalgamation, the Working Principle is to crush and grind, often with rob mill & ball mills, the ore in order to liberate the minerals. In the chemical and process industries, grinding is an important step in preparing raw materials for subsequent treatment. In present day practice, ore is reduced to a size many times finer than can be obtained with crushers. Over a period of many years various fine grinding machines have been developed

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By | February 13th, 2017|Categories: Ball Mills|Comments Off on Ball Mill Working Principle & Operation

Ball Mills

Nowadays grinding mills are almost extensively used for comminution of materials ranging from 5 mm to 40 mm (3/16″—1 5/8″) down to varying product sizes. They have vast applications within different branches of industry such as for example the ore dressing, cement, lime, porcelain and chemical industries and can be designed for continuous as well as batch grinding.

Ball Mills

Ball mills can be used for coarse grinding as described for the rod mill. They will, however, in that application produce more fines and tramp oversize and will in any case necessitate installation of

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By | December 2nd, 2016|Categories: Ball Mills, Equipment|Comments Off on Ball Mills

Cone Crusher

cone crusher 1Here are facts about the cone crusher known as Hydrocone. This line of hydraulically adjusted gyratory crushers was developed in the smaller sizes some fifteen years ago by Allis-Chalmers to meet a demand for improved secondary or tertiary crushing units. The line is now expanded to include sizes up to 84-in. diameter cones.

This modern crusher is the result of many years of experience in building all types of crushing equipment, when the first gyratory or cone crusher, the Gates, was put into operation. Over all these years AC has followed a continuing policy of improvement in crusher

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By | October 19th, 2016|Categories: Crushing & Screening, Equipment|Tags: |Comments Off on Cone Crusher

Jaw Crusher

jaw-crusherThis jaw crusher is finest of lines of jaw crushers which we offer. Others include: Superior, Type “B” Blake, Fine-Reduction and Dodge — sizes, 4 by 6 to 84 by 66 inches. A reciprocating machine, the crushes material in a straight line between jaws — without grinding or rubbing surfaces.


As you compare this jaw crusher feature for feature with other makes you’ll see how this modern crusher lowers principal costs—power consumption; lubrication; jaw plate, toggle plate and bearing wear you’ll understand why we say the crusher promises you a new low cost per

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By | October 18th, 2016|Categories: Crushing & Screening, Equipment|Comments Off on Jaw Crusher

Ball Mill Grinding

The ore from the crushing section is delivered to the fine ore bin placed at the head of the grinding section, from which it is fed, together with water, to one or more grinding units consisting of a ball mill or rod mill in circuit with a classifier. One such unit with a conical ball mill is shown in Fig. 9. A ball mill consists essentially of a conical or cylindrical shell supported on hollow trunnion bearings on

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By | October 12th, 2016|Categories: Ball Mills, Grinding|Comments Off on Ball Mill Grinding

Grinding Mills: Ball Mill & Rod Mill Design & Parts

Common types of grinding mills include Ball Mills and Rod Mills. This includes all rotating mills with heavy grinding media loads.  This article focuses on ball and rod mills excluding SAG and AG mills. Although their concepts are very similar, they are not discussed here.

Photographs of a glass ended laboratory ball mill show action of ball mass within the mill. The action of other grinding media is similar.

As the mill revolves, lifters assist in picking up the grinding charge and elevate it to an angle at which gravity overcomes friction and centrifugal force. The charge then cascades downward

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By | July 10th, 2016|Categories: Ball Mills, Equipment, Grinding, Mill Liners, Rod Mills, Tools of a Metallurgist|Tags: , , , , |Comments Off on Grinding Mills: Ball Mill & Rod Mill Design & Parts

Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Methods

A successful search for and development of a new mineral deposit rests not only in its discovery but also in economical processing of the ore. Via the Science of its engineering, Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy allows the evaluation of metal recovery Methods laid-out or expressed as a process flowsheet.

The challenge of discovery and development, the processing and profit from mineral resources have resulted in many different process flowsheets. There has been a constant advance in mineral technology for hundreds of years. The process flow we consider highly successful today may

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By | April 14th, 2016|Categories: Concentrator Manuals/Procedures, Flowsheets & Flowcharts|Comments Off on Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Methods

Gold Refining Process

To present the essential points of all methods of gold refining commonly practised, as well as those of historic interest,” was the author’s purpose in this volume. The fifteen chapters of which the book consists deal with the Simpler Methods of Early Days;

Amalgamation Process; Refining with Oxidising and Chloridising Agents;Gold Refining Sulphur Refining; Refining with Cementation Processes, and by means of Oxygen and Air; Miller’s Process and that adopted at the Melbourne Mint; Parting with Nitric Acid (two chapters); Recovery of Silver from Nitrate Solutions; Refining by Sulphuric Acid; Parting by Electrolysis; Electrolytic Refining of Gold; Separation of Platinum from Gold; Treatment of Cyanide Precipitates; Refining of Gold Slimes by Nitric and Sulphuric Acid; the Nitre Cake Method of Purifying Slimes.


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By | April 1st, 2016|Categories: Gold Refining|Tags: , , |Comments Off on Gold Refining Process

Mineral Processing Flowsheets

The Mineral Processing Flowsheets shown on the following pages are based on actual data obtained from successful operating plants. Metallurgical data are shown in these flowsheets which incorporate Crushers, Grinding Mills, Flotation Machines, Unit Flotation Cells, and Selective Mineral Jigs as well as other standard milling equipment.

The Flotation Machine, the Selective Mineral Jig and the Unit Flotation Cell have revolutionized flowsheet design and have made it possible for both small and large plants to increase recoveries and economical return. The Unit Flotation Cell and

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By | March 8th, 2016|Categories: Flowsheets & Flowcharts|Tags: , , |Comments Off on Mineral Processing Flowsheets

Gyratory Crushers

The below image shows a sectional view of a typical gyratory crusher. This type of machine is, by virtue of chronological priority, known as the “standard” gyratory crusher. Although it incorporates many refinements in design, it is fundamentally the same crusher that first bore the name of “gyratory”; its crushing chamber is very much the same shape; the motion is identically the same, and the method of transmitting power from belt to crushing head is similar. It

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By | February 17th, 2016|Categories: Crushing & Screening|Comments Off on Gyratory Crushers

Solubility Of Gold In Mercury

solubility of gold in mercuryAlthough three rather extensive researches on the system gold-mercury have been published within the last ten years, the disagreement in the various results is most remarkable, particularly at lower temperatures. Quite recently rather precise results on the system silver-mercury, using a new type of solubility tube, have been published by Sunier and Hess;* it has therefore been thought advisable to redetermine the solubility of gold in mercury using the apparatus just referred to. This paper will present the results obtained on this system between the temperatures 80 and 200°.


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By | February 25th, 2017|Categories: Gravity Concentration|Comments Off on Solubility Of Gold In Mercury



Ammonite is an iridescent gem formed within an ancient marine fossil for which it was named—ammonite. Originally discovered by the Blackfoot Indians, ammolite is mined only in Southern Alberta, Canada. Most ammolite is assembled into doublets or triplets to increase durability because solid ammolite is usually thin and fragile, If it’s untreated and solid, ammolite is usually priced per carat and shaped as a freeform to maximize weight.  Extra fine quality ammolites display three or more sharp, brilliant colors with no 

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By | February 25th, 2017|Categories: Geology, Mineralogy|Comments Off on Ammolite

Cone Crusher Parts

cone crusher parts

1. Feed Hopper
2. Adjustment Cap
3. Bowl
4. Bowl Liner
5. Hardware
6. Bowl Adapter Ring
7. Mainframe Seat Liner
8. Hyd. Drive Adjustment
9. Clamping Cylinder
10. Tramp Release Cylinder
11. Head Ball
12. Mantle
13. Head
14. Upper Head Bushing
15. T-Seal
16. Lower Head Bushing
17. Mainframe Liner
18. Arm Guard
19. U-Seal
20. Thrust Washer
21. Mainshaft
22. Mainframe

23. Feed Plate
24. Screw
25. Torch Ring
26. Locking Bolt
27. Dust Shell
28. Clamp Ring
29. Adjustment Ring
30. Mainshaft Pin
31. Pin
32. Socket Liner
33. Socket
34. Eccentric
35. Eccentric Bushing
36. Counterweight
37. Counterweight Guard
38. Gear
39. Thrust Bearing
40. Countershaft Box
41. Countershaft Box Guard
42. Oil Finger Cover
43. Oil Finger
44. Countershaft Bushing
45. Countershaft
46. Pinion

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By | February 19th, 2017|Categories: Crushing & Screening|Comments Off on Cone Crusher Parts

Economic Geology

Understanding the feed to processing operations is key to maximizing cash flow (economic value). Unfortunately the subject of economic geology is not covered within most undergraduate programs preparing students who enter the mining industry as process engineers. The good news is that there are reference materials available to help people learn these subjects. Some good examples are provided below:

  1. A video course (YouTube)
  2. EduMine course sequences.
  3. Reference Books
  4. Technical literature references for starting further detailed study of the particular ore deposits an individual is working with.

What materials and processes have you as process engineers use to learn about orebody characteristics relevant to process performance, design, operation?

Video Course

Sprott Group, ORE DEPOSITS 101 Part

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By | February 17th, 2017|Categories: Geology|Comments Off on Economic Geology

Wills’ Mineral Processing Technology

JOIN 911Metallurgist Discussion Forums to get a chance at winning to get a free (my used) copy of:

Wills’ Mineral Processing Technology

(Seventh Edition)

Barry A. Wills and Tim Napier-Munn

An Introduction to the Practical Aspects of Ore Treatment and Mineral Recovery

I will select a winner from User Directory on March 1st 2017 and announce the winner on 911Metallurgy’s Linkedin page and Forum.


The 911Metallurgist Discussion Forum is totally free and unique, for it is the only platform opened to the public, which allows for

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By | February 12th, 2017|Categories: Tools of a Metallurgist|Tags: |Comments Off on Wills’ Mineral Processing Technology

Precious Metals Melting System

=&0=&The furnace was only used for proof of concept in a platinum recovery project and has extremely low hours. It is practically new… It is a top of the line, USA built, =&1=& Inductotherm system using their latest IBGT technology and was specifically designed to handle non-ferrous metals (gold, platinum, copper, brass, bronze, etc.)  If stainless steel melting is required, it is very easy to make the modification with this unit. All drawings and manuals included. It was =&2=&used in a foundry application/environment and is exceptionally clean. It has multiple cooling and fail-safe systems to protect the furnace should there be a pump failure or power outage during an important melt/casting.Asking price is $89,000. We can also supply installation support and operational assistance if requested.

Inductotherm 125kw VIP-I (Blue) – Very Low Hours

  • Power Required: 460 Volt / Three Phase / 60 Hz / 145 kVA / 185 Amps
  • Output: 125 kW / 1,800 Volts / 2,500 Amps / 3,200 Hz.
  • Circuit Protection System
  • Safety Isolation Transformer
  • Ground/Molten Leak Detector
  • NEMA 12 Combination Electric Starter

Separate External Closed Water Cooling System

Redundant Dual Coolant Pump Module/Skid (Twin Pumps) Separate Cooling System Electrical Control Cabinet Automatic DC water pump in the event ….Read more

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By | January 26th, 2017|Categories: Equipment|Comments Off on Precious Metals Melting System

Gravimetric Analysis Precipitation Reactions Examples

The conditions essential to accurate gravimetric analysis have been given. As a rule such estimations come under one of four classes:

Direct Estimations

These are the most usual and accurate methods of gravimetric analysis. The element sought is precipitated and weighed generally as a compound, definite in composition.

Direct Estimation by Loss

Here the element sought is volatile or forms a volatile compound and is driven off, the weight being taken as the volatilisation loss.

Indirect Estimation

When the previous methods are difficult these are used. If, for instance, Na or K are to be determined, unite them to Cl or SO4, say to the latter, and weigh the joint

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By | January 20th, 2017|Categories: Laboratory Procedures|Comments Off on Gravimetric Analysis Precipitation Reactions Examples