Innovative Processes

Industrial Water Treatment Systems & Process Flow Diagram

These are existing Industrial Water Treatment Systems, they can be sized from 10 gpm to 250 gpm. With arsenic and uranium, contamination concentrations are important. At 25 ppb As I can run a system at 40 gpm, however at 120 ppb As I need to reduce it down to 10 gpm with the same system to increase contact time.

turbidity-water-treatment-system-for-lake-water industrial water treatment process flow diagram

Industrial arsenic removal Water Treatment Systems

Treatment of Mixed Sulfide Oxide Ores of Copper

Many of our largest copper deposits contain both sulfide and oxidized copper minerals. The large porphyry mines, with a total copper content of from 1.3 to 2.0 per cent., send to their mills ore with an oxide content of from 0.2 to 0.4 per cent. While the recoveries of the sulfide minerals are considered satisfactory, using modern flotation practice, the recovery of the oxidized portion of the copper is small; better recoveries of oxidized copper were made before flotation methods were adopted.

Beside the ores containing copper mainly as sulfide, with a small amount of oxidized copper, many of the large porphyry mines have oxide orebodies, in which the proportion of non-sulfide minerals is so high that present methods of treatment are inefficient. In some of the well-known orebodies in the Miami-Inspiration district the copper occurs about equally in sulfide and oxidized forms; and the mixing of minerals is complete throughout the orebody. There is no possibility of mining the sulfides and the oxides selectively. At the New Cornelia mine, however, the oxide and sulfide ores are sharply separated, perhaps by an ancient water level, so that the oxide ore may be mined and treated in a plant built for that purpose, ….Read more

Gold Ore Roasting Plant

To achieve optimum gold recovery from the certain sulfide ore body, the ore must be finely ground to achieve proper oxidation and mineral separation. The ore is separated into stockpiles after it has been mined. These stockpiles are based on gold content, sulfide content, and carbonate content. The ore is blended prior to being fed into the crushing circuit. The ore passes through crushing and grinding circuits to the Roaster circuit then to the Carbon and Leach circuit at a designed rate of 12,000 tpd. (13,000 /2002)

Crushing starts with the primary 42” x 65” gyratory crusher and fed to the Nordberg MP800 secondary crusher where it is crushed to 80% passing 3/4 inches. After the material is crushed it is stockpiled for feed into either grinding train. The material is ground from 1½ inches to 80% passing 200 mesh (74 micron) in a double rotator-grinding mill, run by a 10,000 hp motor. Material is split with a static classifier and a dynamic classifier with the underflow reporting back to the mill and the overflow going to the Roaster circuit.

The Roaster is also a duel train with 2 – 22’ diameter x 80’ high, two-stage stationary bed Dorr Oliver Roasters.
The gold ….Read more

Chemical Smelting

Some of us who have been acquainted with the present methods of production of metals, and who have had an opportunity to witness the impact of some of the newer chemical techniques on metallurgy, have become convinced that it is possible to consider seriously the treatment of sulfide minerals by strictly chemical methods as distinct from pyrometallurgical methods. In other words, a chemical smelter. The authors of this paper believe that profit making flowsheets can be developed for chemical recovery of base metals from sulfide ores with 95% recovery of contained gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. A major advantage of such a possibility is the fact that no prior separation would be required and that very fine grained and complex ores could be treated economically.

Chemical Smelting Process

Such a conviction does not really amount to much more than loose talk until someone sits down and begins to put dollar signs on the chemistry.

It is our purpose to show the results of estimates which we have made on the cost of treating the most difficult sulfide ore we could dream up as feed for our chemical smelter. This ore is assumed ….Read more

Electrolytic Refining

The list of pure non-ferrous metals so widely used in modern industry includes many that are produced by electrolytic means, such as copper, zinc, nickel, aluminum, magnesium, lead, sodium, cadmium, calcium and many others. In the case of some metals, ordinary fire or chemical methods of production are important, but in others, 100 per cent of the metal used is produced by electrolysis. The commercial production of electrolytic metals had its origin a century ago when James Elkington, an English electroplater, invented a process for refining copper electrolytically; later, about 1890, aluminum was first produced on a commercial scale by electrolysis, followed by lead in 1905, nickel in 1910, and zinc about 1915.

There are a number of reasons why metals produced by electrolysis have played such an important part as they have in modern industry. In the first place, metals produced in this way are usually exceptionally pure; the purities shown in the following table are obtainable in commercial practice.

Metal Table

The peculiar properties of high-purity metals include: extraordinary high resistance to corrosion, high malleability, high electrical conductivity, and others of a similar nature. High-purity lead gives exceptional service in chemical plant construction, the zinc ….Read more

Leaching Mercury Sulfide

Hydrometallurgical methods have received increased attention for the treatment of many ores in recent years. Whereas, direct furnacing has been regarded as the standard process for mercury (cinnabar) ores, hydrometallurgical methods offer an alternate consideration. The chemistry of this process is not new, but with the impetus to hydrometallurgical methods, it is only logical that this method should receive increased attention. The process parallels cyanidation for the recovery of gold and silver in many ways. The mercury sulfide (cinnabar) is dissolved in a sodium sulfide-sodium hydroxide solution and washed from the solids using counter-current decantation. The mercury is precipitated from solution using metallic aluminum.

An important contribution to the advancement of leaching practices for mercury ores is Report 5 entitled “Studies in the Hydrometallurgy of Mercury Sulfide Ores” by John N. Butler and published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines, Reno, Nevada. This report, here below, is an excellent reference.

Mercury Sulfide Leaching Leaching Mercury

The flowsheet in this study represents a condensed presentation of the process and is intended only to illustrate the general features of the treatment steps. Extensive testing should precede any plant installation.

The Mercury Leaching Process Flowsheet

CRUSHING – ….Read more

LPF Process Metallurgical Testing


  1. A Metallurgical Laboratory had completed preliminary economic studies on various processing options applicable to the Minerals Project in South America, containing oxide, transition and sulfide ore reserves. These included heap leaching with SX-EW; use of Roast-Leach-EW of sulfide concentrates to produce CuSO4 crystals; and potential application of the Leach-Precipitation-Flotation (LPF) option to treat all the three ores from Deposit. The results of the above studies indicated that the potential use of LPF provided the best preliminary economics.
  2. Based on the above premise, Minerals authorized Metallurgical Testing Laboratory to undertake an in depth study to confirm the practical and economic viability of the proposed LPF process for treating the ores under a two-phased project.
  3. The results of the initial H2SO4 consumption tests under Phase I of the project indicated that while the amount of acid required for oxide and transition ores were reasonable (94.6 lbs/ton and 155.2 lbs/ton respectively) the acid consumption for sulfide ore was very high (588.6 lbs/ton). Based on this fact, it was jointly (Metallurgical Testing Laboratory) decided to exclude the sulfide ores from the proposed LPF process. Thus, the sulfide ores will be treated by the conventional sulfide flotation process as planned.
  4. The first step in ….Read more

Recycling Sand from Foundry Casting Molds

The flowsheet shown in this study is particularly adapted to the requirements of the average foundry to reclaim foundry sand for re-use. Any foundry whose new sand delivered costs is too high should seriously consider reclamation with the flowsheet as illustrated. This reclaimed sand is usually equal to, or better than the original sand. Foundry sand once used must be thoroughly water scrubbed and water washed to remove objectional bonding materials, clay slimes, and fines. Such treatment will greatly extend the life of the sand and will cut to a minimum the requirements for new sand. Foundry castings made from molds using this reclaimed sand, can also be maintained up to the high standards as required.

In this flowsheet the Heavy Duty Sand Scrubber plays an extremely important role in removing the bonding and slime from the surface of the sand grains. This is done by attrition of sand grains striking one another at high velocity in a water and sand mixture, usually 40-50% solids. Data obtained from actual foundry sand reclamation installations has established this method of sand reclamation as far superior to existing methods including mulling, ignition, and dry separation. Test work at the Equipment Company Ore Testing Laboratory ….Read more

Mining Business Plan

The following document outlines a mining business proposal to design and construct a free standing toll plant facility, known in this document as Peru Toll Treatment (PTT), in southern Peru to accommodate the needs of a growing quantity of small scale miners who produce up to 14 percent of the country’s annual gold production. The plan includes the basic design criteria on which the plant will be built, the model for generating revenue and a detailed annual cash flow forecast for the proposed operation for a period of ten years.

The proposed 7.5 tonne per hour plant will cost approximately $2.9 million to design (including $473,000 in VAT taxes which will be reimbursed from revenues), construct and startup and will generate revenues by providing a custom milling facility for small producers who sell their production to the plant. This business opportunity does not include any involvement in mining or the production of mineral. It only involves the purchase and treatment of gold minerals. While the market for such a plant can easily accommodate a 350 tonne per day operation the business plan is based on processing 150 tonnes per day only with the ability to later expand to multiple plants of ….Read more

Metallurgical Testwork for Process Development

Mineralogy & Microscopy

Amenability of an ore to flotation is best tested for by a microscopic examination of the ore followed by a few laboratory flotation tests. As stated in Chapter I, most ores containing minerals of metallic, resinous or adamantine luster associated with minerals of earthy, vitreous, or pearly luster, can be divided by froth flotation in such a way that the floating part will contain the bulk of the mineral or minerals of metallic, resinous or adamantine luster to the practical exclusion of the associated minerals, while the part not floated will consist largely of the associated gangue minerals. For microscopic examination, thin sections of the ore, such as are prepared for petrographie work, or polished sections should be examined through a suitable microscope to determine the method of occurrence and grain size of the valuable mineral. Fragments of the ore crushed to pass a 0.295-mm. screen (or its equivalent) should be examined under a binocular microscope at 20 to 50 diameters magnification and also under the petrographic microscope. The examination of the fragments will give a good idea of the mineralogical character of the ore. Rogers’ “Study of Minerals” (see page 23) is a good guide for this determination. The examination of thin or polished sections will tell whether alteration ….Read more

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