During the latter half of the nineteenth century and the early years of the twentieth, the major percentage of metallurgical coke produced in the United States came from beehive ovens. It was not until 1893 that the first battery of by-product ovens came into operation (at Syracuse, N. Y.), and only in 1919 did the total production of by-product coke first . exceed that from beehive ovens. Peak output of beehive coke occurred in 1916 when 35,464,224 tons were produced as opposed to the 19,069,361 tons carbonized in by-product ovens. The Connellsville district of Pennsylvania was not only
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Froth Flotation: A Century of Innovation
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Before starting to work at Practical Chemistry it is necessary that the student should have some knowledge of how to cut, bend, draw down, and round off the ends of glass tubing, make closed and bulbed tubes, mend test- tubes, top and bottom, and fit up a decent wash-bottle. In this chapter is included also the graduating of test-tubes and beakers, so that the student from the beginning can work economically with regard to the use of reagents.
Cutting Glass Tubes
To cut a glass tube the simplest method is to make a sharp scratch on one side of it with a three-edged file where it is desired to cut, then take the
A study on the effect of time in tempering medium-carbon steel, when the following conclusions were reached: It is not fair to consider the question settled when only three specimens were used for each treatment, but the results obtained indicate that for reheating quenched medium-carbon steel to temperatures below 500° it is only necessary to heat it through. Longer heating has little or no effect on the tensile strength, ductility, or hardness. At temperatures above 500°, increasing the time of treatment causes a slight falling off in hardness and tensile strength with a corresponding increase
In the manufacture of gun forgings and other steel parts that, in service, are subject to sudden high stresses and shocks, it is most desirable to use steel possessing the greatest toughness and ductility possible without sacrifice of strength. In order to obtain this condition, it is necessary to procure steel that shows the highest possible elongation and reduction of area without lowering the tensile strength and elastic limit. Proper heat treatment of the steel can control this condition within certain limits. When heat treatment has failed to produce the desired results, metallurgists have
“It would seem as if the methods used to date for the elucidation of this complex problem have yielded all they are capable of yielding and that further straining of these methods will only serve to confuse the issue, the point having been reached when this juggling, no matter how skilfully done, with allotropy, solid solutions, and strains is causing weariness without advancing the solution of the problem. The tendency of late has been to abandon the safer road of experimental facts and to enter the maze of excessive speculations, in which there is great danger of some becoming hopelessly
It is twenty years since the writer made his first molybdenum steels and others were making them commercially five years earlier but the prevailing opinion seems to be that molybdenum steels are new; from time to time the daily press speaks of important discoveries in Europe and intimates that American steel makers have much to learn in regard to alloy steels. The earlier experiments were largely confined to the use of relatively high percentages of molybdenum in tool steels and permanent magnet steels. Recent developments deal with the types of alloy