Non-Metallic & Industrial

Beneficiation and Balling of Coal

The spherical agglomeration process provides an attractive method for the cleaning and recovery of fine coals in the form of compact oil-bonded pellets. In treating a washery effluent containing 50% minus 20 micron material by this technique, the slurry was first mixed under vigorous agitation with oil to deash and dewater the fine coal. The flocculated coal pulp was then formed into larger agglomerates on a modified balling disc. The operation of a semi-pilot scale process is described and an analysis of some of the operating and system variables is given. A semi-theoretical expression to predict the final agglomerate size under various conditions is derived and compared with the experimental data.

Fine Coal Treatment Processes

Most coal cleaning methods depend upon the density difference between coal and its impurities to effect separation. These gravity concentration methods, however, are not practical for particles finer than about 100 mesh and cleaning methods dependent upon the differences in the surface chemistry of coal and foreign matter are used for the finer sizes.

Whereas surface treatment chemicals are used in very small quantities in the flotation of coal, these extremely fine sizes may be removed from suspension only if quite large quantities of oil (5

By |2019-06-14T09:48:05-04:00June 13th, 2019|Categories: Non-Metallic & Industrial|Tags: |Comments Off on Beneficiation and Balling of Coal

Mineral Dressing Studies of Municipal Incinerator Flyash

Due to the immense volumes of municipal wastes that are generated in this nation every year, it has become imperative that effective measures be developed to utilize all or portions of these materials in a productive and efficient manner. Many larger municipalities employ incineration to reduce the bulk of material to be removed to disposal sites: but, even after incineration, approximately one-fourth of the original waste material in the form of non-combustible residue and flyash remain. It has been found that the flyash fraction of the incinerator residue contains varying amounts of copper, silver, gold, aluminum, iron and titanium along with many other important metals. The serious loss of these natural resources contained within the flyash and the monetary expense of current disposal methods present a serious and rapidly increasing problem to the public and to the Federal Government.

Materials and Experimental Work

The municipal incinerator flyashes examined during this project were supplied by the USBM College Park, Maryland Research Center and were collected from incinerators in the Washington; D. C. and Atlanta, Georgia areas. Chemical analysis and incinerator locations for the ashes are shown in Table 1. A 200 pound sample from the Fort Totten incinerator (F-8) was selected

By |2019-05-27T12:03:09-04:00May 24th, 2019|Categories: Non-Metallic & Industrial|Tags: |Comments Off on Mineral Dressing Studies of Municipal Incinerator Flyash

How to Choose Rock for Concrete Aggregate

Thirty years ago it was possible to locate a quarry site for crushed rock for concrete aggregate by finding the nearest solid rock bluff accessible by road. But times have changed and the location of a quarry site to furnish crushed rock for concrete aggregate now has’ become rather complicated. Although both sand and gravel can be used for aggregate, this discussion will be confined to crushed rock in the regions around a metropolitan area. Let us assume that a consultant has been retained to advise on the desirability, and the possibility, of opening a new quarry within a given area. The problems are geological and ecological. Since the geological problems are simpler, they will be discussed first.

Generally, the first step is to make a market study of competitive aggregate sources within the projected area. Assuming that the quality of aggregate to be sold by competitors as well as their mining costs will, within narrow limits, be the same, the problem becomes essentially a study of haulage costs from established quarries into the projected new area.

If the market study is favorable, it then becomes desirable to chart the location of those rock types within the area which may meet specifications.

By |2019-05-11T14:05:11-04:00May 9th, 2019|Categories: Non-Metallic & Industrial|Tags: |Comments Off on How to Choose Rock for Concrete Aggregate

Activated Bleaching Clay

Activated bleaching clays, so called because of their ability to remove color bodies from bleach fats and oils, are produced from clays of bentonitic origin. Activation is achieved by subjecting these clays to physical or chemical alteration to increase selective sorption capacities.

Bentonitic clays which are suitable for production of activated bleaching clays contain the essential montmorillonite clay mineral as well as substantial inert impurities. Activation of montmorillonite by acid leaching involves partial dissolution of the octahedral layer. The activity level attainable depends upon the concentration of the montmorillonite. A high activity clay cannot be obtained by acid activation of bentonite containing a low percentage of montmorillonite.

Removal of inert impurities from bentonite to effect concentration of montmorillonite is a method for improving the activity of bleaching clays. A simple technique which can be employed to concentrate certain montmorillonites is dispersion and centrifugation.

Further purification techniques may be applied to the acid activated montmorillonite. For Example, ion exchange resins may be used to remove interfering impurities remaining after the acid dissolution and rinsing procedure. The refined activated montmorillonite may be treated additionally by ion exchange to add important reaction promoting cations, for example, the Fe+++ ion as an oxidation accelerator.

Decolorization of fats and

By |2019-05-09T08:55:50-04:00May 8th, 2019|Categories: Non-Metallic & Industrial|Tags: |Comments Off on Activated Bleaching Clay

Design Start-Up and Operation of the Hygas Pilot Plant

The HYGAS Process is one of several coal conversion processes now under development within the United States and is the most advanced in development. It is based on the overall reaction of coal and water to produce methane, which is the major constituent of natural gas,and a by-product, carbon dioxide, which is exhausted to the atmosphere.


This overall reaction (Reaction 1) cannot, however, be directly achieved because of thermodynamic limitations, and various routes are necessary in order to obtain the overall result. There are basically two methods by which coal can be converted to methane, the preferred of which is the direct attack of coal by hydrogen (Reaction 2) under the proper conditions to produce methane. Interestingly enough, this reaction produces a considerable amount of heat, equivalent to about 20 % of that which would be produced by the combustion of the carbon. The other approach, which is an indirect approach, is to first convert the coal to a synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This reaction (Reaction 3) is quite endothermic requiring a heat input at temperatures above 1700 °F. After adjustment of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide to a

By |2019-04-26T19:27:53-04:00April 22nd, 2019|Categories: Non-Metallic & Industrial|Tags: |Comments Off on Design Start-Up and Operation of the Hygas Pilot Plant

Application of Mineral Beneficiation Techniques to the Extraction of Values from Municipal Refuse

Incineration has, in recent years, been considered by many as a major source of air pollution. However, a number of reports refute this belief. The former report states that the National Academy of Sciences has published data showing that refuse combustion accounts nationally for only 2.6 percent of air pollutants. The report also states that incineration is only one means of disposal under the Academy’s heading of “Refuse Combustion.” It includes on-site incineration and open-burning, as well as municipal incineration. The report further asserts that if all forms of open-burning were eliminated the contribution of incinerators to air pollution would drop to a fraction of 1 percent. In addition, if all currently operating on-site incinerators improved their combustion efficiency, sources of air pollution such as aerosol from spray cans, salt spray, ground dust, and even cigarette smoking would outweigh the pollutant effects of incineration.

“Concentration,” in mineral dressing terminology, is defined as the “separation and accumulation of economic minerals from gangue”. Incineration can be considered a concentration step. Generally after a thorough burning of the combustibles in a municipal incinerator the residue that is left occupies about 10 percent of the original volume. The weight reduction is approximately 4 to 1.

By |2019-04-26T19:30:43-04:00April 19th, 2019|Categories: Non-Metallic & Industrial|Tags: |Comments Off on Application of Mineral Beneficiation Techniques to the Extraction of Values from Municipal Refuse

Gypsum Calcining

Gypsum is the crystalline chemical compound CaSO4·2H2O. A close chemical relation – and frequently occurring with Gypsum – is Anhydrite which is CaSO4. Gypsun has wide commercial use because relatively simple heat processing reduces it to Plaster of Paris. While Anhydrite can be converted to Gypsum and thence to Plaster of Paris, the procedure is not simple and is quite costly. Anhydrite, however does have use in the agricultural field and in the Portland Cement industry.

The chemical compound of Gypsum, CaSO4·2H2O, breaks down into the following:

Lime (CaO)………………………………………………………….32.6%
Sulfur Trioxide (SO3)…………………………………………….46.5

Calcination of Gypsum was an accidental discovery as were its rehydration characteristics. Ancient man probably used lumps of Gypsum to enclose his fire. Some degree of calcination and softening occurred and when the fire was extinguished with water he noticed the lumps soon hardened. The next step was to break the massive Gypsum into small pieces and then to pulverize them in a hollowed out block of Gypsum or perhaps harder stone. The pulverized Gypsum was calcined in a vessel of some type, likely ceramic. The resulting product, eventually many hundred of years later, named Plaster of Paris, provided this early man with a medium for making cast objects.

In the

By |2019-04-11T08:59:31-04:00April 6th, 2019|Categories: Non-Metallic & Industrial|Tags: |Comments Off on Gypsum Calcining

Manufactured Sand

Our earthly treasures are being quickly depleted. We have experienced what can happen in an energy crisis. You have read and heard all kinds of stories as to what caused this crisis. On the surface it would seem that all of a sudden a situation becomes a crisis whether it be fuel, potatoes, beef or whatever.

We are running out of sand! Producers of aggregates who can say today “That couldn’t happen to me”, can well be awakened tomorrow to the cold fact of reality. It could come from any number of directions. Depletion is mostly foreseeable but zoning isn’t. Legislation can also be sudden death to availability. With the ever growing population moving into the rural countryside, available deposits are being sold either to developers or being zoned for restricted use. The fact that a gravel pit or quarry is located on a particular plot has not fazed some of the local planning boards when they decided to place the adjoining property in a residential Zone A.

Although there is, and always has been, a great deal of natural sand in the United States, aside from beaches and rivers, there has always been some market for manufactured sand. Now, due to

By |2019-03-11T17:24:16-04:00March 9th, 2019|Categories: Non-Metallic & Industrial|Tags: |Comments Off on Manufactured Sand

Sonic Pin-Setting Machine

In this time of increased coal demand, a faster and safer method for roof support is needed. This report outlines the preparation and testing of a machine which we feel will help answer this need. The results of the tests are encouraging, and indicate that further exploration of the method should be continued.

The machine consists of a steel bar supported at the nodal points of its first mode of transverse vibration. A mechanical oscillator, driven by a hydraulic motor, is attached to one end of the bar. This provides the forcing function for the vibrations in the bar. The hydraulic power is supplied by a portable unit. When the forcing function is near the natural frequency of the bar, large amplitudes of vibration occur and require little power input. An anvil is attached to the bar at a point of maximum deflection, providing a means for striking the pin. Since the bar is being driven near its natural frequency, it takes little energy to accelerate the bar back and forth between each hit. This means that most of the power being put into the bar is going into driving the pin.

Modifications and repairs in preparation for a more extensive program

By |2019-03-02T11:48:22-04:00February 28th, 2019|Categories: Non-Metallic & Industrial|Tags: |Comments Off on Sonic Pin-Setting Machine

Solid Bowl Centrifuges

To operate the Morris Fork Preparation Plant with a closed water circuit has been an elusive goal for Union Carbide. The benefits of a closed circuit have never been questioned. The removal of fine solids from washery water makes possible the recirculation and reuse of the water. Heavy media drag tanks and other separating machines perform better and more consistently with washery essentially free of fine solids. Finally, the production of a clarified effluent makes unnecessary the sludge ponds, usually associated with a coal preparation plant.

Morris Fork Plant

Union Carbide’s Morris Fork Preparation Plant produces a 10 percent ash steam product from the No. 5 Block coal seam at the corporation’s two mines located near Charlestion, W. Va. The mines produce at an annual clean coal rate of nearly one million tons annually.

Raw coal is taken into the plant from two 2500-ton storage silos at a rate of 660 tons per hour. After crushing to minus 3-inch the coal is screened at 3/8-inch round. Two heavy media drag tank circuits clean the 3 x 3/8-inch material, heavy media cyclones clean the 3/8-inch x 28 mesh material and froth flotation is used for the minus 28 mesh. The 1 x

By |2019-03-02T11:01:20-04:00February 28th, 2019|Categories: Non-Metallic & Industrial|Tags: |Comments Off on Solid Bowl Centrifuges

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