Dewatering: Thickening, Filtering, CCD, Water Treatment & Tailings Disposal

Dewatering: Thickening, Filtering, CCD, Water Treatment & Tailings Disposal 2017-04-04T06:57:46+00:00
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AMD Explained (7 replies)

Raje Singh
2 years ago
Raje Singh 2 years ago

Could you please send me some links of journals or books for my reference (with authors in it) that explains very details of what's happening when water, sulphide and Oxygen reacts and make AMD, like why acidity can dissolved metals in water? How acidity can dissolved metals in water? How is chemical bonding of metal, water and Oxygen react?, something very detail about Chemistry perspective of Acid Mine Drainage

2 years ago
OberstGruppen 2 years ago

One of the best places to start would be the GARD Guide. This free, on-line reference was prepared by a group of engineering and scientific professionals and it was sponsored by INAP, the International Network for Acid Prevention. INAP is a consortium of responsible mining companies who are listed on the bottom of the website home page.

You should be able to find the answers to your questions in the first few chapters of the GARD Guide. References at the ends of the chapters should steer your inquiry in any technical direction you wish. 

John Koenig
2 years ago
John Koenig 2 years ago

The GARD guide is a good start, but doesn't have enough references that are essential to answer your question. The GARD guide was meant as a practical guide for practitioners, your questions seem to be academic related.

Good luck!

Journal: "Mine Water and the Environment"

lowest pH ever measured -3.6:
Nordstrom DK, Alpers CN, Ptacek CJ, Blowes DW (2000) Negative pH and Extremely Acidic Mine Waters from Iron Mountain, California. Environ SciTechnol 34:254-258

generel information (selection - no sepecific order):

Blowes DW, Ptacek CJ, Jambor JL, Weisener CG (2003) The Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage, vol 9. Elsevier, Amsterdam

Younger PL, Banwart SA, Hedin RS (2002) Mine Water – Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Kluwer, Dordrecht

Plumlee GS, Logsdon MJ (1999) The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits, vol 6A-B. Society of Economic Geologists, Littleton

Wolkersdorfer C (2008) Water Management at Abandoned Flooded Underground Mines – Fundamentals, Tracer Tests, Modelling, Water Treatment. Springer, Heidelberg

Singer PC, Stumm W (1970) Acidic Mine Drainage – Rate-Determining Step. Science 167(3921):1121-1123. doi:10.1126/science.167.3921.1121

Stumm W, Lee GF (1961) Oxygenation of Ferrous Iron. IndEngChem 53(2):143-146. doi:10.1021/ie50614a030

Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1996) Aquatic chemistry – Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters, 3 edn. Wiley & Sons, New York

Dizzy Flores
2 years ago
Dizzy Flores 2 years ago

In addition to the good references above, I suggest you write to Prof Rudy Sayoga at ITB. He has worked with acid-mine drainage (and other mining-related problems) for many years. He can probably direct you to references in Bahasa Indonesia that may be especially helpful to your initial investigations, and I am sure he knows your professors (and they know him), so there may be some good interactions there, too.

Helena Russell
2 years ago
Helena Russell 2 years ago

Langmuir, D. 1997. Aqueous environmental geochemistry.

Is a good reference along the lines of Stumm and Morgan.

Bill Rico
2 years ago
Bill Rico 2 years ago

Here is an article that presents the details of acid generation and metal release.

Sand, W. T. Gehrkea, P.G. Jozsaa, A. Schippers. 2001. (Bio) chemistry of bacterial leaching - direct vs. indirect bioleaching. Hydrometallurgy. Volume 59, (2–3), P. 159–175. Accessible at:

2 years ago
Sturmbann 2 years ago

I would recommend attending some university level courses on chemistry for starters.

Aqueous chemistry, aqueous environmental chemistry, geochemistry, applied geochemistry, and even some college level courses like first and second year 'chemistry' courses are all really good for building up fundamental understanding for this subject.

Paul Morrow
2 years ago
Paul Morrow 2 years ago

A good start is the global acid rock drainage guide ( This site is an international project on ARD which covers the science and the practical aspects. It is comprehensive and fully referenced.

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