Dewatering: Thickening, Filtering, CCD, Water Treatment & Tailings Disposal

Dewatering: Thickening, Filtering, CCD, Water Treatment & Tailings Disposal 2017-04-04T06:57:46+00:00
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Titration Model of Acid Water with Hydrated Lime (1 reply)

Alan Carter
2 years ago
Alan Carter 2 years ago

I am working in a Titration model of acid water with hydrated lime - In the below PHREQC code, why gypsum does not precipitates?


  • pH 3.62
  • unit mg/l
  • temp 16.0
  • Na 3.6
  • K 3.9
  • Ca 3.7
  • Mg 2.5
  • Cl 1
  • S(6) 93 as SO4
  • Fe(+3) 3.5
  • Zn 0.15
  • Al 3.9
  • Mn(+3) 0.61
  • Cu
Carl Jenkins
2 years ago
Carl Jenkins 2 years ago

I think the basic answer is that the sulphate concentrations are very low and therefore it takes a large amount of Ca to approach saturation with respect to gypsum. In fact, it looks like gypsum saturation would never be reached in this system. See the modified file below. I increased the amount of Ca(OH)2 reactant from 0.03 mol to 0.3 mol and added a User Graph function so that you can see the result of Gypsum SI and pH (using the PHREEQC database). I also turned off the potential precipitation of all other potential solid phases for simplicity. You can see the increase in Gypsum SI and pH with increasing Ca(OH)2 but the SI starts to level off, still below SI = -1.1. At this point the pH is well above 12. If you were to be excessive and add even more Ca(OH)2, you would find that the Gypsum SI starts to decrease, probably due to the very high ionic strength. You will also see varying dynamics in the Gypsum SI once you begin to add potential solid phases back to the solution.

pH 3.62
unit mg/l
temp 16.0
Na 3.6
K 3.9
Ca 3.7
Mg 2.5
Cl 1
S(6) 93 as SO4
Fe(3) 3.5
Zn 0.15
Al 3.9
Mn(2) 0.61
Cu 0.23
save solution 1

pH 3.44
unit mg/l
temp 16.0
Na 2.0
K 4.4
Ca 3
Mg 1.8
Cl 1.1
S(6) 63 as SO4
Fe(3) 5.3
Al 3.2
Mn(2) 0.57
Cu 0.78
Zn 0.25

1 0.34
2 0.66

SAVE solution 3

use solution 3
Gypsum 0 0
#Ettringite 0 0
#alunite 0 0
#gibbsite 0 0
#Jarosite-K 0 0
#Fe(OH)3(a) 0 0
#Manganite 0 0
#Schwertmanite 0 0
#Cu(OH)2 0 0
#Calcite 0 0
CO2(g) -3.64 4e-4

Fe8O8(OH)4.5(SO4)1.75 20.5 H = 8Fe 3 12.5 H2O 1.75SO4-2
log_k 18
Cu(OH)2 2H = Cu 2 2H2O
log_k 6
delta_h -56.42 kJ
Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12:26H2O = 6Ca 2 2Al(OH)4- 3SO4-2 26H2O 4OH-
log_k -56.86
REACTION 1 Add Ca(OH)2 to the acid groundwater
Ca(OH)2 1
0.3 moles in 100 steps

-headings mol_CaOH2 Gypsum_SI pH
-axis_scalex_axis auto
-axis_scale y-axis auto
-axis_titles "mol Ca(OH)2" "Gypsum SI"

10 graph_x RXN
20 graph_y SI("Gypsum")
30 graph_SY -LA("H ")

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