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Monometallic Flotation Process Plant: Copper & Base Metals

This complete process plant is for recovering metal monometallic ore deposits. This applies, but is not limited to, the recovery by froth flotation of most base metals: Copper, Lead, Zinc, Cobalt, Nickel, Molybdenum, Pyrite, Pyrite-Gold, Silver-Sulphides. This process will also recover silver and/or gold associated with sulphide minerals. If your ore only contains one metal, you will be able to selectively float it away from the waste material. If you have more than one metal, you will be able to recover them in bulk into one single/common concentrate.

This simple metallurgical concentrator includes single stage crushing, conveying, primary grinding, spiral classification, slurry pumping, rougher flotation and 3 stages of concentrate dilution cleaning. A regrind circuit can be added upon request.

With this simple flowsheet, you will not be able to separate one metal from another. If you have a polymetallic mineral deposit, you need more complete and sophisticated circuit.

Our standard packages are for process plants of:

  • 25 Tonnes/Day = 1 Tonne/Hour
  • 50 Tonnes/Day = 2 Tonne/Hour
  • 100 Tonnes/Day = 4 Tonne/Hour
  • 250 Tonnes/Day = 10 Tonne/Hour

This is a standard process plant which includes only the major components of the complete metallurgical flowsheet. A detailed engineering study is required to identify unforeseen omissions that may be required to design the optimum plant.

Additionally, we offer two separate packages for plant tailings thickening/filtration and water treatment. Contact us for details.



911MPE offers all the major components of this complete process plant designed using these key design parameters:

  • Coarse/Fine ore bin
  • Vibrating Grizzly feeder
  • Jaw crusher
  • Dry/wet reagent feeders
  • Conveyor belts
  • Primary Ball Mill
  • Regrind Mills (Optional)
  • Spiral classifier
  • Conditioner tank
  • Flotation cells
  • Sump pumps
  • Flotation Reagents used:
    Lime, NaCN, ZnSO4, PAX, MIBC
  • ROM = 100 mm
  • Jaw crusher F80 = 75 mm
  • Jaw crusher P80 = 12 mm
  • Steel balls = 2.5″
  • Steel balls charge = 1700 tonne
  • Ball Mill F80 = 12 mm
  • Ball Mill P80 = 100 µm
  • Spiral classifier overflow = 33%
  • Rougher pulp density = 33%
  • 1st Cleaner pulp density = 18%
  • 2nd/3rd Cleaner density = 15%
  • Rougher Retention = 23 minutes

Our standard packages are for process plants of:

Process development testwork and detailed engineering are essential services 911Metallurgy Corp. offers separately. The equipment package described herein does not include any permitting, infrastructure, foundation, electrical, assembly, reagents/supplies or commissioning. These are all additional paid-for services we do offer if you need them.

buy a complete flotation process plant

Show below is an ultra Economic Ore Processing Plant which minimises the use of pumps and maximises gravity flow by carefully arranging equipment location and harmonising them to the local topography.1 gold sulphide flotation plant best gravity flows

Recover Gold by Gravity Method & Flotation

The flotation process is now used very extensively on gold ores, not only for concentrating the values without other processes, but also in conjunction with amalgamation, gravity concentration, or cyanidation leaching, to improve recoveries and to give lower treatment costs. In many instances, it is most profitable to recover the gold in the form of a concentrate, and either ship this product to a smelter, or amalgamate or cyanide the concentrates at the mine. In other cases, flotation has been utilized to recover the values remaining after amalgamation or gravity concentration. Today flotation is also being used to remove copper or other cyanicides prior to the cyanide treatment, and in many cases to recover a concentrate containing the values in the sulphides that remain in the tailings from the cyanide plant. These values that are contained in the sulphides can sometimes be recovered by further grinding and cyanidation or amalgamation treatment, or, if refractory, by roasting and cyanidation or by direct shipment to the smelter.

The present day success of many small gold mines is directly traceable to the use of flotation, as a flotation plant can be constructed for less than half the cost of a cyanide plant. The use of flotation has made it possible for many mines to operate where the ore bodies are complex and would not have justified the capital expenditure required for other methods of treatment.

Flotation Plants, illustrated in the following pages, show the compactness and simplicity of the modern milling plant. These have been designed to meet present day needs of standardized and economical milling plants with a flexible flowsheet that can be altered slightly so that a wide variety of ores can be efficiently treated. They are built to handle any tonnage desired, but 25-35 tons, 50-65 tons, and 100-125 tons per day are most common. Standard equipment is used throughout, and only machines that have proved successful in installations the world over, have been included. While the entire milling plants have been shown, individual machines can be easily incorporated in existing plants.

The selection of the equipment for these mills will naturally depend upon the flowsheet. Metallurgical tests are necessary to determine this flowsheet. This step should be considered, as these ore tests will show the most economical treatment process, as well as indicating the recovery, grade of concentrates, and economic possibilities of the project.

ORE TREATMENT PROCESSES have been improving rapidly during the last few years, and this advancement is due primarily to the improvements made in the flotation process. The field for flotation has been broadened to include the concentration of most non-metallic minerals, and its efficiency has been increased on base metal ores.


Flowsheet 2, shown here, is widely used where straight flotation is the indicated method of treatment. This consists of a grizzly, followed by single stage crushing, and fine grinding in a closed ball mill-classifier circuit. The classifier overflow passes to a Conditioner, and then to a “Sub-A” Flotation Machine, where a high grade concentrate and low tailing are made. The flotation tailing passes over pilot tables to act as an indicator for the operator, and to recover any oxidized or tarnished minerals that are not floated. A concentrate thickener and filter can be added to simplify the preparation of the concentrate for shipment. This flowsheet is used where a single concentrate is made and where the ore requires extreme fine grinding to liberate the values.


Where it is necessary to separate and recover two minerals from an ore to make marketable concentrates, Flowsheet 3B is generally used. The widest application of this circuit is on lead zinc ores, and the Unit Flotation Cell used in the fine grinding circuit is of great value in recovering the lead material at a coarse mesh as soon as freed, thus preventing overgrinding of the mineral particles and avoiding slime losses.

The classifier overflow passes to the first conditioner and then to the first series of “Sub-A” Flotation Cells where the first mineral is recovered in a high grade concentrate. The tailings from this operation pass to the second conditioner and second series of flotation cells where the second mineral is recovered. The tailings from this circuit pass over Pilot Tables so that the operator can continually check mill results. Often these tables are not only used for pilot work, but also to recover a pyrite concentrate when some precious metals are associated with this mineral.

It is often desirable to float out a coarse flotation product, regrind these middlings and then refloat in a second flotation unit at a fine mesh. The ability of the “Sub-A” Flotation Machine to handle a coarse feed as well as the fine feed makes this flexibility in Flowsheet 3B possible.

Grinding Circuit.

Flowsheet 2B, shown above, is universally used for treating gold and silver ores that are associated with any of the various base metals and in fact should be used on any flotation ore. Mill efficiency is always enhanced by removing the minerals as soon as grinding has freed them from the gangue. In this flowsheet is shown the Flash Flotation Cell where the minerals in the ball mill discharge are recovered when freed, and are not returned to the ball mill where they would be overground. In over-grinding the finer mineral values are coated by colloids and become difficult to float or to concentrate in a high grade product.

It is often preferable to remove a gravity concentrate from the grinding circuit. This is particularly true on oxidized or rusty gold ores where a reasonable percentage of the values are in the form of metallics which free readily during the grinding operation. A coarse concentrating table may be substituted in the grinding circuit for the “Sub- A” Flash Flotation Cell, but a pump or elevator is required to complete this circuit, and great care must be used to prevent excessive dilution from the wash water necessary for the operation of the table.

Unit Flotation

Since its development, the Mineral Jig has been widely used to recover a high grade gravity concentrate, as the objections to the use of a concentrating table are overcome with this compact and efficient unit.

A (Selective) Mineral Jig may be installed in the grinding circuit in place of the unit cell illustrated in above Flowsheet 2B. As in the case with the Unit Flotation Cell, the Mineral Jig can be installed without pumps or elevators, and requires very little floor space. Much less dilution is required for the jig than is normally required for a concentrating table in the grinding circuit, so that there is not the drawback encountered in other types of gravity concentration machines at this point in the flowsheet. Additional water is added to the (Selective) Mineral Jig discharge before subsequent classification. The mills shown in the following drawings have been reproduced in exact proportion so that the comparative sizes can be readily visualized. While all of these drawings show the standard Flowsheet 2B, either a coarse concentrating table, or a (Selective) Mineral Jig, can be utilized with minor alterations. Larger Mills can be supplied, and as all of the equipment in these various plants is standard, it can be used to advant-age if a larger tonnage mill is later warranted.


In these mill drawings are shown a Thickener, Diaphragm Pump, and Filter for concentrate dewatering. These are items that can be omitted to keep first cost at a minimum and added later when finances permit, for these machines will quickly pay for themselves.

Even though only a few flowsheets have been illustrated herein, others are available to suit variations in the treatment of the ore as determined in the flotation

The 50 to 65 Ton Mill is the most practical size for the average small milling plant. The Jaw Crusher (forced feed) produces enough crushed ore for the ball mill on one eight hour shift to run the balance of the mill for twenty-four hours. Oversize primary crushers are recommended for most economical results. Note the flexibility of the flowsheet and the gravity flow through the mill which eliminates elevators, conveyors and pumps (except for middling products).

Advantages include motor “V” Rope drives and ample room. On gold ores a Selective Mineral Jig in the grinding circuit may be advisable.

Milling Plant

The 100 to 125 Ton Mill is arranged along the same standard lines as the smaller mills, and a large oversize forced feed crusher is recommended for primary crushing. An intermediate crusher can be installed later if necessary. Changes can be easily made according to your local conditions. Here too, a Selective Mineral Jig may be advisable on gold to float gold

All machines have motor “V” Rope drive, but with slight changes belt drives can be furnished. Drives and flowsheet can be changed to meet your conditions, and by means of the sand pump, products can be returned to any part of the flowsheet.

Milling Plant


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