Underground Mining Geology

In the previous topic we learned that the economics of mining is particularly related to the amount of ore that can be produced and the amount of waste rock that must be moved. That makes underground mining particularly suited to structurally compact ore bodies with high grade ores which don’t require an extensive network of access tunnels

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Open Pit Mining

open pit miningopen pit mining 003open pit mining 001 In model 1 with Stephen, and in the previous topic, we saw that the geological aspect is one of the main factors that affect the design of a surface mine. What are the characteristics and other aspects should be taken into a code for the final configuration of the surface mine. Between them, we have to take into account of the safety,

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Open Cast Mining Advantages

In the previous topic, we saw which are some of the advantages that can make the surface open pit mining methods superior method compared to the underground mining. However, underground mining has its own advantages. And finally, the ultimate decision to mine from the surface or from underground comes down to the

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Rock Mass & Rock Matrix – Discontinuities

rock mass matrix (1)In this topic we will discuss what constitutes a rock mass and its relevance for this photo, you can see a rock face and what is quite clear is that the rock is not homogeneous. Compare to this specimen of sandstone, which has a uniform color and no clear planes crossing it. In contrast, the photo shows many lines, vertical lines

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Mining Geomechanics – Stress & Strain

We’re going to introduce in this topic the two key variables required to define the fundamental behaviour of materials. These variables are stress and strain.

In many engineering applications it is required to assess how a structure deforms or behaves under a load. Making such an assessment requires some knowledge about the material constituting

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Mining Exploration Process

online-geology-courseHow Explorers develop an exploration strategy, how they develop an exploration model and design an exploration program and select the optimal exploration tools to carry out that program. As usual of the talk will end with a series of learning points from this talk.

There are two fundamental truths about the exploration industry; the first

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Cave Mining

cave mining (1)In the previous topic, we considered methods of stope mining were the stopes were intended to stay open and collapse and collapse of the roof was not an intended outcome. In some situations however, it may be permissible or even desirable that the roof of the mine collapse to fill the stope as mining proceeds. These methods are called cave mining

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Witwatersrand Gold Deposits


Here is some history of the Witwatersrand Gold Style Ore Deposits as they related to South Africa since the arrival of the Dutch and the southernmost tip of the continent in 1652. The Dutch set up a small fort where Cape Town stands today and started Market Gardens as a place that the Dutch East India Company ships to shelter and to restock

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