Ammonite is an iridescent gem formed within an ancient marine fossil for which it was named—ammonite. Originally discovered by the Blackfoot Indians, ammolite is mined only in Southern Alberta, Canada. Most ammolite is assembled into doublets or triplets to increase durability because solid ammolite is usually thin and fragile, If it’s untreated and solid, ammolite is usually priced per carat and shaped as a freeform to maximize weight.  Extra fine quality ammolites display three or more sharp, brilliant colors with no 

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By | 2017-03-19T08:36:30+00:00 February 25th, 2017|Categories: Geology, Mineralogy|Comments Off on Ammolite

Economic Geology

Understanding the feed to processing operations is key to maximizing cash flow (economic value). Unfortunately the subject of economic geology is not covered within most undergraduate programs preparing students who enter the mining industry as process engineers. The good news is that there are reference materials available to help people learn these subjects. Some good examples are provided below:

  1. A video course (YouTube)
  2. EduMine course sequences.
  3. Reference Books
  4. Technical literature references for starting further detailed study of the particular ore deposits an individual is working with.

What materials and processes have you as process engineers use to learn about orebody characteristics relevant to process performance, design, operation?

Video Course

Sprott Group, ORE DEPOSITS 101 Part

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By | 2017-03-17T19:06:27+00:00 February 17th, 2017|Categories: Geology|Comments Off on Economic Geology

How to Extinguish a Mine Fire

In the anthracite fields of Pennsylvania, mine fires occur with more or less regularity and their existence is an ever-present hazard in coal mining. In all probability 90 per cent, of the mine fires can be ascribed directly or indirectly to the ordinary miner’s open lamp. Other causes may be smoking, electrical installations, gas explosions, gas feeders, and the communication of fire to the outcrops from ash dumps, culm banks, timber and brush fires.

Fires in pump rooms, engine rooms, and barns have been largely eliminated as a result of the Act of Assembly, approved June 15, 1911, which provides

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By | 2017-03-17T19:08:00+00:00 December 23rd, 2016|Categories: Geology, Safety|Comments Off on How to Extinguish a Mine Fire

Handling Ore in Stopes and Drifts

Every one connected with a mine knows that it is hard to keep down the costs of moving ore from the place where it is broken to the shaft or portal. Considered broadly, the subject of handling would cover all work done in a mine but here it has been limited to handling ore in stopes and drifts, through chutes, and on levels. Good ventilation and a strict enforcement of rules for the prevention of dust safeguard the health of the men and lower transportation costs.


The object of all stoping is to mine ore of good grade at low cost. In Butte, the major part of the ore is mined, from veins dipping

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By | 2017-03-17T19:08:02+00:00 December 23rd, 2016|Categories: Geology|Comments Off on Handling Ore in Stopes and Drifts


The Core-Oven tests here described were made to obtain information regarding costs, efficiency, etc. of baking cores in an oil-fired oven, and two electric ovens, which were installed, early in 1920, in the core room of The Ohio Brass Co. and were used almost continuously during the rest of that year. Operating costs were rather high so a complete test was undertaken early in the last century.

The ovens will be referred to as Nos. 1, 2, and 3. Nos. 1 and 2 are electric ovens of different makes while No. 3 is an oil-fired oven made by the firm that made No. 2. The three are equipped with similar

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By | 2017-03-17T19:08:13+00:00 December 22nd, 2016|Categories: Equipment, Geology|Comments Off on Core-Oven

Carlin Style Mineralisation Deposit Examples


goldstrike deposit Carlin Style Mineralisation Deposit Examples at Goldstrike

This section on Carlin Style Mineralisation Deposit Examples will give you a quick run through of a couple of actual Carlin deposits to give an idea of their characteristics; we will begin with Barrick’s goldstrike deposit, it’s in the north of the Carlin trend. Gold strike is the mother and father of Carlin deposits and is responsible for Barrick being the biggest gold producer in the world today. As you can see the geology exhibits

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By | 2017-03-17T19:12:19+00:00 November 24th, 2016|Categories: Geology, Gold Extraction|0 Comments

Mesothermal and Greenstone Gold Deposits AKA Orogenic Geology Formation

online-geology-courseMesothermal gold deposits form half way up through the rise of the melt from the deep crust to the surface usually at a depth of less than 10 km but greater than 1 km. temperatures at these depths are generally somewhere between 450 degrees and 250 degrees Celsius. The term mesothermal veins is really a sack term, referring simply to the depth formation.  It pays little attention to the origin of mineralizing fluids. This group of deposits forms throughout the earth’s long history all the way from the earliest Archean, say more than 3.4 billion years ago right up until today.

As I mention

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By | 2017-03-17T19:12:24+00:00 November 23rd, 2016|Categories: Geology, Gold Extraction|0 Comments

Geological Theory of Plate Tectonics & Mineralization Process

The geological theory of Plate Tectonics and the Associated Mineralization Process relating to the formation of ore deposits is a hugely complicated process with the myriad contributing variables such as rock and fluid compositions, temperature, pressure pH, eH, structure and time, all interacting to provide a host of different outcomes. In truth ore deposits and exploration geology is much an art as it is a science. However the basic concepts are very straightforward and you don’t need multiple degrees in geology to grasp these basics.Geological Theory of Plate Tectonics

Everyone has seen diagrams of the cross section

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By | 2017-03-17T19:13:01+00:00 November 17th, 2016|Categories: Geology|0 Comments

Exploration Drilling Method: Setup, Operation Procedure

Setting Up The Drill: The drill is placed in the desired location for the hole, leveled, and the derrick raised. One end of the sand line is attached to the vacuum sand pump; the other end is placed over the sand line sheave in the derrick and attached to the sandline drum. The drill line is placed over the crown sheave of the derrick, laced through the walking beam, and attached to the mainline drum, the cable socket being on the other end of the line.

For most placer operations, a string of tools usually consists of a rope socket, a stem, and a hit. When assembling a string of tools, lay the

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By | 2017-03-17T19:13:38+00:00 November 8th, 2016|Categories: Geology|Comments Off on Exploration Drilling Method: Setup, Operation Procedure