Grinding and Classification Circuit

Our EXAMPLE Grinding and Classification Circuit is designed to grind 500 tonnes of ore per day, operating 24 hours per day, with an availability of 95%.  This circuit will grind -5/8″ material from the Crushing Plant, classify the slurry in one of two cyclones, and pass 70% of the minus 200 mesh material to the mill feed Thickener Circuit at a rate of 22 mtph.
This section is intended to be read in conjunction with the Flowsheet and Piping and Instrument Diagrams.

The Grinding and Classification Circuit is designed to the following criteria:

F80 Feed Size 80% minus 7/16″ (11,000 microns)
P80 Product Size 70% minus 200 mesh (75 microns)
Ore’s Bond Work Index 17.7
Circulating Load 400%
Ball Mill Power 800 HPgrinding circuit ball mill

Detailed Process Description and Control: Crushed ore in the fine ore bin flows through a slot feeder onto a 30″ variable speed belt feeder. The
bin low level alarm on the mill control panel annunciator will inform the mill that there is a shortage of feed material. The belt feeder has level and
pullcord switches identical to the other three conveyors. In addition, the belt feeder is equipped with two speed switches; one at each pulley, in order to ….Read more

How to Improve Cyclone Separation

Good cyclone separation depends upon control of pressure drop, pulp density and apex size. The ‘pressure drop’ may vary but should not change rapidly, and is held at safe levels by keeping an adequate sump level. A falling sump level causes cavitation in the pump and reduction in feed rate; pressure drop in the cyclone falls and solids report increasingly to the overflow until the drop approaches zero and the entire slurry stream passes into the underflow. Additionally, while maintaining the required separation parameters, the pressure drop should always be minimised to minimise energy losses, thus reducing pump and cyclone wear. The maximum ‘pulp density’ is usually about 50% solids by weight; above that level small fluctuations in density will seriously affect separation. A cone-shaped discharge of 20°–30° reduced angle usually produces optimum conditions for separation. Cyclone control is best obtained by optimising the feed density. With consistent ore types the cyclone feed density is a good indicator of cyclone overflow sizing. A ropy cyclone underflow indicates a very high-density state with a risk of plugging the ‘apex’. If control cannot be exercised either a larger apex is needed, or the addition of another cyclone.

Striking an economic ….Read more

Hydrocyclone Rubber Liners

We sell Rubber Liners for Hydrocyclone:  You can buy parts like the main body liner, lower cone and Apex or Vortex.

Long lasting, good wear and better price VS life relationship than a Linatex types Brand.

Hydrocyclone Replacement Vortex Hydrocyclone Rubber Lower Cone Liner Hydrocyclone Apex Hydrocyclone Rubber Liners -Alternative to Linatex

Hydrocyclone Feed Pump & Pressure PSI vs Operating Parameters

For a hydrocyclone to work at peak efficiency the volume of slurry and the feed pump delivery pressure must remain constant. If the cyclone feed pump is allowed to SURGE, the up and down pressure will cause poor separation at the point of high and low operating pressure.
There is a cycle to a surging pump box that causes this pressure fluctuation.Cyclone

First the pump pumps all of the slurry out of the pump box. When the box becomes empty the pump gets some air which results in an air lock. The air lock prevents the slurry from entering the pump’s casing. The cyclone now does not have any feed going to it, the hydrocyclone feed pressure is lost. The pump box will fill up until the weight of the slurry in the pump box is great enough to force the air past the pumps impellor. When this happens the cyclone pressure shoots up as the pump empties the full pump box.

Some of the things that will cause a pressure surge are, not enough feed going into the pump box and the pump air locking. The operator making many large changes in his circuit, ….Read more

Troubleshooting Hydrocyclones

Here is a simple Table for Troubleshooting Hydrocyclones.

Troubleshooting_Hydrocyclones https://rsteyn.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/cyclones-basics.pdf

hydrocyclone_internal_working_ www.metprosupply.com

troubleshooting hydrocyclones

Other Hydrocyclone Troubleshooting Tips:

Underflow is too wet
Apex is too large
Vacuum control valve is open too far
Inlet pressure is too low
Pump is cavitating

Underflow is too dry (cone is plugging)
Apex is too small.
Vacuum control valve is closed too far.
Percent solids is too high.

Too many fines in the underflow
Close the vacuum control valve slightly.
Install a smaller apex.
No coarse material in the feed.

Underflow is too coarse
Open the vacuum control valve slightly.
Install a larger apex.
No fine material in the feed.

Example of a Roping Hydrocyclone:

Hydrocyclone Manufacturers

If you are looking for an affordable Hydrocyclone Manufacturers, contact us.

Hydrocyclone Manufacturercheap Hydrocyclone ManufacturersHydrocyclone_Manufacturer's_CycloPack

Hydrocyclone is a continuous device that utilizes centrifugal force to accelerate the settling rate of particles. When feed slurry enters the hydrocyclone tangentially under pressure, as result of the high centrifugal forces, particles coarser than the “cut point” size migrate into a primary vortex adjacent to the wall and move forward to discharge with a small volume of water via the spigot. Particles finer than the “cut point” size migrate into a secondary upward-moving vortex, along the axis of the hydrocyclone and discharge with the majority of the water via vortex finder.

The Hydrocyclone is one of the most common classification unit in the minerals industry, it is widely used in the mineral industry processing as a classifier, which has proved extremely efficient at fine separation size. Hydrocyclone is widely used in closed circuit grinding operations but it also has many other applications, such as desliming, degritting, and thickening.

Features & Benefits

  1. Compact and simple structure
  2. No moving parts
  3. Low investment and running cost
  4. Easy ….Read more

Hydrocyclone Working Principle

hydrocyclone working principleHydrocyclone Operating PrincipleThe third type of classification used in mining is the Hydrocyclone, commonly called a Cyclone. Unlike the others it has no moving parts and is worked in conjunction of another piece of equipment, a pump. To understand the Hydrocyclone Working Principle we must first know its components.  Beginning at the top, there is the OVERFLOW DISCHARGE.

Unlike the rake and spiral classifiers, the overflow of the cyclone is the exit point for the fine material instead of the other way around as it is in the case of the other two. Extending from the overflow discharge into the body, which is the feed entry point of the cyclone, is the VORTEX FINDER.

This is simply a length of pipe, its purpose is to provide a point of separation between the coarse and fine material. A better explanation will be possible once we begin explaining how it works. Next in our list of cyclones components is the UPPER and LOWER CONE, not all hydrocyclones have this section divided into two cones. Some are designed this way do to make repairs easier, and to ….Read more

Hydrocyclone Operation

hydrocyclone Hydrocyclone in Operation

hydrocyclone Cyclone in Operation

The hydrocyclone operation consist of having the ore slurry pumped into its feed inlet, the ore is then separated by size with the fine material coming out of what is referred to as the “OVERFLOW” via a Vortex Finder. The mineral that still requires grinding is named the “UNDERFLOW” via the Apex Finder.

These two terms, the “overflow” and “underflow” will become very familiar to you. They are used where ever the slurry is “being separated by grind size, density, or mineral content. In this case it is particle size. The cyclone underflow is directed to the ball mill- for further grinding. Once the ore has passed through this mill it will be added back into the material that is being pumped to the cyclone for reclassification.

The hydrocyclone product is the overflow, which of course is finely ground rock. It is this overflow which must be controlled. The grinding circuit must grind the ore fine enough to have the waste rock and the mineral, which is bound to it, liberated from each other. Once the ore has ….Read more

BUY Laboratory & Small Plant Process Equipment

We have all the laboratory and plant equipment you need to test or build/operate your plant.

ENTER our Mining Equipment' Store

We Sell EQUIPMENT for all types of Mineral Treatment PROCESSES and Laboratory Testing needs


View the Services we Provide

911Metallurgist Mineral Processing & Process Development Laboratory

We have a metallurgical test for every possible mineral type and treatment.


We can IMPROVE ALL PLANTS / Mineral Processing Engineering & LABORATORY Ore Testing

911Metallurgy Engineering

Contact us for process engineering, metallurgical investigations, plant optimization, plant troubleshooting, needs. WE “FIX” METALLURGY.

I Need Consulting Engineering Help
I Need Ore Laboratory Testing