Operating Manual

Silver Sulphide Leaching & Filtration Circuit Startup & Shutdown Procedures

Details of good silver sulphide leaching and filtration circuit operation and instructions for sequencing and preparing for startup.

The following items must be checked before the equipment in this EXAMPLE Argentite Leaching Circuit is started.

  1. The leach tank agitators should be running.
  2. Check that the Argentite filter feed pump, drum filter, repulper and tailings sampling pump are available to start up.
  3. Ensure that shut-off valve in the air line to each leach tank is open.
  4. Ensure that the timer for the lime addition has power and that the shut-off valves in the appropriate lime lines are open.
  5. Check the level of cyanide solution in the cyanide day tank to ensure there is an adequate amount to start the Argentite Leach Circuit.
  6. Ensure there is an adequate supply of flocculant available and that the flocculant metering pump is available to operate.

    silver-cyanide_process http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/S/silver.html

Start UP Sequence and Procedure of this EXAMPLE Silver Leaching & Filtration Circuit

  1. Start the Argentite drum filter, filter boot agitator and the filter repupler. Ensure that gland seal water is flowing to the repulper and adjust the flow rate with flowmeter.
  2. Start the tailings sampler pump and turn on the reclaim repulp water to ….Read more

Silver Flotation Concentrate Leaching and Filtration Circuits

silver flotation Silver Flotation

Producing a Silver Flotation concentrate from this EXAMPLE Argentite (cubic silver sulfide (Ag2S)) Flotation Circuit enters the first of four successive Argentite leach tanks. The purpose of this leach circuit is to dissolve the silver and gold recovered in the Flotation Circuit. A high strength solution of sodium cyanide, air, and lime are added to the first tank to provide the excess cyanide, oxygen, and protective alkalinity required for successful leaching. Dissolved precious metals are recovered in the small Argentite drum filter, the tails are sampled and fed to the tails box for disposal, and the pregnant solution is delivered to the primary filters vacuum receiver, where it is combined with the pregnant solution from the other filtration circuits. This section is intended to be read in conjunction with Flowsheet and Piping and Instrument Diagram.

The Argentite, this silver mineral, Leaching and Filtration Circuit is designed to the following criteria.

Silver Leaching Retention Time96 hours
Cyanide Concentration10 gm/litre
Solids Concentration20% solids
Leaching pH10.5
Ag Leach Residue Filtration Rate120 kg/m2/hour
Filter Wash Ratio1.5:1

Detailed Leaching and Filtration Process Description and Control

….Read more

Crushing Plant Startup Sequence & Procedure

The following items make up an EXAMPLE Crushing Plant Startup Sequence & Procedure that all must be checked in preparation and before the equipment in the Crushing Plant is started.crushing-plant

  1. If maintenance has occurred since the last operating shift, ensure that the MCC is energized and that all safety locks have been removed from equipment starters.
  2. Walk along all conveyors and check belt scrapers, idlers, and pulleys to ensure that there is no undue buildup of material or spillage. Check all conveyor emergency pull-cord switches; reset any engaged switches.
  3. Check all chutes to ensure that they are not plugged.jaw crusher
  4. Ensure that the cone crusher lube system is operational and that there is an adequate supply of oil in the reservoir.
  5. Remove and discard of any tramp metal dropped from the magnet onto conveyor #1 or #2.
  6. Inform the mill foreman or operator that the Crushing Plant is about to be started and that water from the dust scrubber bottoms pump will soon be pumped to the cyclone feed pump box.

Crushing Plant Design

Crushing Plant Startup Sequence

All the Crushing Plant equipment is interlocked, except for the sump pump, ….Read more

Small Crushing Plant Operating Guide

This EXAMPLE Small Crushing Plant is designed to crush 500 tonnes per day, operating 12 hours per day with an availability of 70%. The Plant will crush run-of-mine material (-16″) to 100%, passing 5/8″ at a rate of 60 tonnes per hour.  Start-stop stations are provided for all equipment in this Plant at the crusher control panel, to facilitate remote control. A jog/stop station is provided locally for maintenance and checking as well as equipment shutdown. This guide is intended to be read in conjunction with the Flowsheet, Piping and Instrument Diagram.

The Crushing Circuit is designed to the following criteria:

Run-of-mine Ore Size16″
Ore Bulk Density1.6 tonne/meter3
Ore Moisture Content3% by weight
Jaw Crusher (Closed side setting)3″
Cone Crusher (Closed side setting)1/2″

Detailed Process Description and Control of our EXAMPLE small crushing plant

small crushing plant operationRun-of-mine ore is delivered to the Crushing Plant via mine rail cars or underground mine haulage trucks, and is dumped through a 16″xl6″ grizzly into a 350 tonnes coarse ore bin. Oversize material on the coarse ore bin grizzly must be manually removed and broken. The broken material can then be ….Read more

Hydrochloric Acid & Sodium Cyanide

Even a small concentration of hydrochloric acid in the air irritates the membranes of the respiratory tract making it easily detectable in amounts below the Threshold Limit Value of five parts per million. One to five parts per million can be detected by smell, while five to ten parts become disagreeable.

In addition hydrochloric acid mixed with sodium cyanide liberates HCN gas. This is extremely dangerous (read the cyanide safety section). Contact of hydrochloric acid with any cyanide containing solutions must be avoided.

Personal protective equipment is not an adequate substitute for good safe working conditions, adequate ventilation or intelligent conduct on the part of employees working with hydrochloric acid. In many instances, however, it is the only means of protecting the worker, particularly in emergency situations.

Under conditions which are sufficiently hazardous to require personal protective equipment, its use should be supervised and the type of protective equipment selected should be capable of control over any potential hazards.

Hydrochloric acid can emit gas, hydrogen chloride, which has a highly corrosive action upon the skin and mucous membranes due to the rapid absorption of the gas on ….Read more

Lead Nitrate Safety

lead_nitrateLead nitrate is used in small quantities in the gold recovery circuit.

Lead is extremely toxic. It is a cumulative poison and so a dangerous exposure level would not necessarily show an immediate result, but continuous exposure at this level would maybe show as serious problems after a month. View a lead nitrate MSDS.

Ingestion of lead must be avoided. Rubber gloves and masks should be worn while mixing up lead nitrate solution.

Rubber gloves should be worn when adjusting the lead nitrate flowrate.

Eating, drinking and smoking should not occur in a plant where lead salts are present, and operators should wash their hands thoroughly before eating, drinking or smoking.

Should lead poisoning be suspected a doctor should be consulted.

Sodium Cyanide Safety – Poisoning – HCN Vapor

Almost all solutions in the plant contain cyanide, and in the absence of any other information it should be assumed that all solutions contain cyanide.

Because of the toxicity of sodium cyanide, it is important that all persons coming in contact with it be completely familiar with and observe the established safety practices.

Sodium cyanide is a rapidly fatal poison when taken internally. Poisoning may occur if sodium cyanide dust is inhaled. Prolonged contact with the skin may cause irritation and possibly poisoning, particularly if there are open wounds or skin abrasions. Sodium cyanide causes eye burns.

Sodium cyanide in contact with acids or weak alkalies liberates highly toxic and flammable hydrocyanic acid (HCN) gas.
Also toxic amounts of HCN can be liberated from water solutions of sodium cyanide. View a cyanide MSDS.sodium-cyanide-safety-poisoning-hcn-vapor

The basic NaCN safety precautions are:

  1. Do not breathe dust or gas. Wear an approved dust respirator when there is danger of inhaling cyanide dust (such as when handling cyanide containers or mixing cyanide).
  2. Avoid contact of cyanides with the skin. Never permit it to contact open wounds or skin abrasions. Wear protective gloves when handling solid cyanides. Wear rubber gloves when handling cyanide ….Read more

Good Concentrator Safety Guidelines & Practices

mining-safety TOP 10 Safety Rules

The following guidelines are considered good industrial practice:

  • When any equipment or structure is dismantled in whole or in part, and subsequently re-assembled, it must be completely checked and found to be safe before it is started up.
  • Whenever a person observes what appears to be an unsafe or harmful condition or act he should report it as soon as possible to his supervisor.
  • No person should intentionally remove any safeguard provided for the protection of workers.
  • Machinery and equipment must be operated only by authorized persons. Before any equipment or machinery is put into operation the person responsible for doing so must ensure that all safeguards are in place and functioning, and no one will be endangered by putting the equipment or machinery into operation.
  • No one will be allowed work while affected by alcohol, drugs or other substances which may endanger his health or safety or that of any other person.
  • No one must engage in any improper activity or behavior that might create or constitute a hazard to himself or any other worker. Improper activity or behavior includes “horseplay”, scuffing, fighting, practical jokes, unnecessary running or jumping, or similar conduct.
  • ….Read more

Gold Process Description

Gold Process Description EXAMPLE

In our Gold Process Description EXAMPLE, the ore will be received by the crushing plant initially by rail haulage from the ABC Zone and later by truck from the DEF Zones. The 350 tonne live capacity coarse ore bin is sufficient for train or truck load surges and provides approximately five hours storage of ore, permitting 1 shift of haulage.

Minus 16″ run-of-mine ore is crushed to minus 3″ in a 24″ x 36″ primary jaw crusher. The jaw crusher product is screened on a 6′ x 10′ vibrating double-deck screen and the screen oversize is crushed from minus 3″ to minus 1/2″ in a secondary 4′ standard cone crusher. The secondary crusher product is combined with the primary crusher product and recycled back to the vibrating screen. The minus 5/8″ screen undersize
material is conveyed to the 500 tonne live capacity fine ore bin.

Crushed ore is reclaimed from the fine ore bin and is fed into the 10′-6″ diameter x 13′-0″ long single stage overflow ball mill. Leaching is designed to begin in the grinding circuit by the addition of recycled barren solution for repulping. The grinding ….Read more

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