Table of Contents
Shellsol AB is a high boiling, high aromatic solvent derived from petroleum. It has good colour, low odour, a narrow distillation range and high flash point. It is complementary to Shellsol A, being very similar in many characteristics, but is higher boiling.
The aromatic content is 99% by volume, the major constituents being in the C10, C11 range, such as dimethyl-ethyl-, and tetramethyl benzenes. In addition there are mixed alkyl benzenes, naphthalene and some Cu naphthalenes.
Shellsol AB possesses the following typical characteristics:
Shellsol AB is immiscible with water. It has excellent solvent power for many organic substances, in particular for resins used in the surface coating industry.
The evaporation rate of Shellsol AB is comparatively low as shown in the figure:
Applications for Shellsol AB
Shellsol AB may be used as a solvent or diluent in stoving enamels, paints, varnishes and lacquers, where its combination of solvent power giving low viscosities and high solids contents, and evaporation rate giving good flow properties is unsurpassed.
It is a slower evaporating solvent than Shellsol A and xylene and is thus used to improve flow properties in surface coatings, especially in dipping and roller coating applications. It is a useful solvent in Organosol coatings for swelling the PVC resin to a controlled degree thus aiding film formation, and also for thermosetting acrylic resins.
A typical formulation for a white acrylic stoving enamel is given below:
In the determination of the physical properties of Shellsol AB, the following tests are employed:
Shellsol AB is inflammable but has a flash point of approximately 152°F (Pensky-Martens Closed Cup) and is therefore not classified as petroleum spirit under the Petroleum (Consolidation) Act (1928).
Like all organic solvents, Shellsol AB should be handled with care and exposure to high concentrations of its vapour should be avoided.
Shellsol AB, due to its higher boiling point and lower volatility, is a reduced toxic hazard compared with the lower boiling aromatic hydrocarbons such as xylene. No injury should result from its use if the normal precautions for dealing with organic solvents arc observed, and provided that care is taken to ensure adequate and thorough ventilation at all times.
Shellsol AB is supplied in 45 Imperial gallon mild steel drums and in bulk.
1 ton at 15.5°C (60°F)=approx. 251 Imperial gallons.
1 Imperial gallon=approx. 8.9 lbs. at 15.5 °C (60°F).
Napoleum 470 is used commercially in the solvent extraction of Uranium, Copper, Vanadium, Molybdenum, Europium and some other rare earths. This process also is referred to as liquid – liquid ion extraction. Current research work indicates the use of Napoleum 470 will expand to the extraction of several other minerals.
Napoleum 470 exhibits excellent phase disengagement properties which result in minimum solvent entrainment losses and lower settling area requirements. Emulsion tendencies are minimized. Because of the superior solvency of Napoleum 470 for ion exchange and other active mineral extraction components less of the costly alcohol modifier is required.
Napoleum 470 is prepared from sweet midcontinent crudes by fractionation. It is manufactured under closely controlled specifications so that uniformity of product is maintained from run to run. The high narrow boiling range and high (safer) flash point in comparison with commercial kerosene significantly reduce evaporation losses and fire hazard. This is especially noteworthy where operations are carried on at elevated temperatures.
Kerr-McGee will continue to improve the qualities of Napoleum 470 to keep pace with industry change and needs.
N.C.C.M – Specific Gravities for Impeller Head Calculations
For Napoleum 470 S. G. 60/60°F – 0.8109
As determined in the laboratory the S.G. of LIX solution (as received by PGC) is 0.396.
18% v/v LIX Solution
From the above two figures the calculated S.G. for 18% v/v LIX solution is 0.326.
The following data has been determined in the laboratory :
The specific gravity and viscosity data on synthetic Chuquicamata solutions has now been completed. The results are given below.
NCCM Liquid Ion Exchange Plant Solution Conductivities
The conductivities of aqueous and organic solutions representing those expected in the extraction section of the NCCM main plant were measured at 25°C on a Philips PR 9501 direct reading conductivity bridge.
The following results were obtained :