Casting Titanium Zirconium and Hafnium

The work covered in this report is a continuation of an earlier feasibility study by the Federal Bureau of Mines and points out improvements in the skull-melting method for casting reactive metals such as titanium, zirconium, and hafnium. Machined graphite molds with laminated sections can be reused many times. Large tube sections can be produced … Read more

Crushing Chestnut to Produce Buckwheat

The crushing of chestnut-size (1-5/8 by 13/16 inch) Pennsylvania anthracite in four commercial crushers (impact, jaw crusher, hammer mill, and gyratory types) was studied by the Bureau of Mines to determine which could produce the largest proportions of buckwheat Nos. 1 and 2 sizes (9/16 by 3/16 inch). Single pass dry and wet crushing techniques … Read more

Radioisotopes Applications

Many factors contributed to the decision to build a radiochemical laboratory at the Salt Lake City Metallurgy Research Center to investigate the application of radioactive isotopes and chemical compounds in extractive metallurgy. These reasons included the notable success achieved in biological sciences with radioisotopes, the development of reliable instruments and methods for identifying the isotopes … Read more

How to Determine Trace Impurities in Helium

An apparatus for determining trace impurities in Grade-A helium by mass spectrometer methods was designed and built by the Federal Bureau of Mines. Grade-A is the designation for helium commercially produced by the Bureau. Its nominal purity is 99.995 percent. The device, following a suggestion by Deaton, concentrates the impurities in the helium by freezing … Read more

How Impurities Affect Titanium Properties

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of the impurities, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and iron (in low percentages) on the mechanical properties of electrolytic titanium. The strength and hardness of binary Ti-O, Ti-N, and Ti-C alloys are linear functions of alloy content in the composition range investigated. Compared to oxygen and carbon, … Read more

Detecting Rubidium and Cesium

A semi-quantitative test for the presence and identification of cesium and rubidium in rocks, clays, and mineral waters has been developed by the Bureau of Mines. The test can be used in the field, as a guide for the prospector, geologist, or mining engineer engaged in location or development work. It comprises two simple spot … Read more

Limonite Siderite Iron Ore Beneficiation

A laboratory mineral-dressing investigation was conducted by the Federal Bureau of Mines on four limonitic and four sideritic iron ores from the North Basin of the east Texas iron-ore district. The samples, composited from drill cores, were considered representative of the iron-ore reserves of the area. The objectives of this research were twofold: (1) To … Read more

Goethite Flotation

The basic flotation characteristics of goethite were determined by using vacuum flotation, contact angle measurement, and Hallimond tube flotation, and the results have been correlated with information on the electrical condition existing at the goethite-aqueous solution interface. The results have also been used to interpret the batch flotation tests made on an artificial mixture of … Read more

Electrorefining Chromium

The Federal Bureau of Mines refined chromium from an aqueous electrolytic process in molten sodium chloride-chromium chloride electrolytes. Oxygen and nitrogen contents were reduced by a factor of 10 to 40, but most other impurities were little changed. The product usually contained a little more iron than the feed. Since iron was entering the bath … Read more

Gasification of Coal Water Slurry

The results were surprisingly reproducible in view of the complex reactions, and the scatter of data was small. Rank of coal exerted the greatest effect on gasification. Tests with only three ranks of coals do not permit firm conclusions about the effect of rank. However, work in progress reveals the same trend for other ranks … Read more