Formation of Sodium Vanadate Compounds under the Conditions of the Salt-Roast Process

A study has been made of the reaction mechanisms occurring during the salt-roast process to form water-soluble sodium vanadate compounds from the vanadium oxide compounds present in vanadium-bearing ores and concentrates. Two reactions have been identified, either of which lead to water-soluble compounds oxidation of sodium chloride by water vapor and oxidation of sodium chloride … Read more

Grinding Ball Wear & Radioactive Tracer Technique

This paper summarizes the results of an investigation sponsored by The Coates Steel Products Company. The objective was to determine the relative effects of certain chemical and physical properties on the wear resistance of grinding balls when grinding cement. In making this study, a number of types of balls were used in both dry and … Read more

Solid Liquid Separation by Flocculation

When is use of a flocculant justified in terms of overall process economy? when it results in process improvement, such as producing a clear liquor for electrolysis, precipitation, ion exchange, or solvent extraction; when it results in satisfying requirements of pollution abatement ordinances; when it results In increased recovery of values that would otherwise be … Read more

Energy Aspects of Single Particle Crushing

A unique compression testing machine was constructed to load individual 1/8 to 1-in. spheres of glass, etc., at rates from 100 to 100,000 lb per min. During loading the applied load was continuously plotted vs the deformation of the sphere-platen system. The load-deformation curve conforms to the theory of elasticity. The data shows.- 1) Energy … Read more

Mill Design Economics

Talking about engineering economics in mill design reminds me of an old saying “There are several ways to handle women but nobody knows what they are.” I’m sure that the same economic factors do not apply to each of our mill designs, but for the sake of emphasis, it is well to review a few … Read more

Cement Plant Grinding Mills Power Consumption

To calculate theoretical horsepower required by a grinding mill to reduce feed material to a certain size from Bond grindability test data, it is necessary to apply the “Bond Third Theory of Comminution.” The first step in this procedure is to calculate from the following formula the work index, which is the kw-hr required to … Read more

Continuous Filtration of Precipitates

Advances in hydrometallurgy during recent years resulted in greater attention being focused on the various unit operations involved. Some steps, similar to normal beneficiation practice—crushing, grinding, classification, etc. are well known.Others —roasting, leaching—have recently been intensively investigated from both theoretical and practical viewpoints. Less well-studied are such operations as precipitation and precipitate filtration. Continuous Filters … Read more

Preparation and Production of Mineral Aggregates

The preparation of aggregates is a form of mineral processing which has been taken for granted for many years, mostly because of its lack of glamour when compared to the winning of metallic minerals from their ores. Many of the processes and equipment now used in the metallic mineral processing industries originated in the more … Read more