Produce Convert & Make Copper Powder from Copper Cement

Production of cement copper in the United States has been increasing during the past few years principally because more mine waste from open pit operations is being leached. During 1969 about 220,000 tons, or approximately 14 percent, of the Nation’s production of new copper was from leaching operations. The mine waste is leached with acid-ferric … Read more

How to Leach Copper Scrap

The starters, generators, and alternators recovered in scrapping up to 7 million junk automobiles annually are a significant source of recyclable copper. At present, the copper is recovered by leaching procedures or by dismantling the devices. As part of a broad research program on recycling the metals in junk automobiles, the Bureau of Mines has … Read more

High Pressure Water Jet to Cut Concrete

Where water is abundant, hydraulic mining of placer deposits is usually the least expensive extraction system. In the past, large volumes of water were required, and pressures rarely exceeded 100 psi. The system fell into disfavor because of the excessive amount of silt and debris returned to streams. With the development of more efficient pumps … Read more

Extract Silicate Rocks’ Oxygen by Electrowinning

In recent years, Bureau of Mines projects under the sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have explored various aspects of the problems associated with establishing habitable stations on the Moon. The rapid advances in space technology, and particularly the success of the Apollo missions, indicate it is within reason to envision lunar … Read more

Chloride to Volatilize Gold

The Bureau of Mines has conducted extensive research to improve the extractive technology of gold and develop processes which may be applicable to refractory ores. Some metallurgists believe that the recovery of metallic values from ores and concentrates by vapor-transport techniques has great potential in the field of extractive metallurgy. The purpose of this phase … Read more

Improve Diamond Drill Penetration Rate

For some time researchers have attempted to increase drilling efficiency by adding certain agents to the flushing medium. Much of this interest is the result of the observations of Rehbinder, Shreiner, and Zhigach. They postulated that in processes for the mechanical destruction of solids, a region of increased crack formation is created in the deformed … Read more

Dispersion Strengthening of Lead by Coprecipitation Method

This research was conducted as a part of a Bureau of Mines aim to promote more efficient use of mineral-based materials. The objective of the study was to prepare high-strength, creep-resistant lead utilizing the coprecipitation method of dispersion strengthening. The excellent corrosion resistance of lead and its sound attenuation capability, easy formability, and other advantageous … Read more

Heavy Liquid Cyclone Separation

Kyanite ore deposits occur in the Southeastern United States. The ore reserves in this area are estimated at about 100 million tons having an average grade range from 10 to 30 percent kyanite. The Graves Mountain kyanite-quartz rock ore deposit consists of a prominent ridge about 1 mile long and 300 to 400 feet high. … Read more

Treatment High Clay Potash Ores by Flotation

Potassium is one of the three basic plant nutrients along with nitrogen and phosphorus. There is no substitute for potassium compounds in agriculture; they are essential to maintain and expand food production. Potash is found throughoul the world in both soluble and insoluble forms. Only the soluble forms are economically attractive to process, primarily as … Read more

Treatment Methods for Mining and Ore Processing Wastewaters

Increased emphasis on industrial pollution control has intensified investigation of waste treatment technology for methods of reducing the amount of pollutants discharged by industry. The mining and mineral processing industry can point to a record of considerable accomplishment in the field of wastewater treatment and reclamation because these operations are so frequently an integral part … Read more