About Anupam

In 2008, Anupam obtained a Chemical Engineering from the Bapatla Engineering College in India. This University Level Degree was followed, in 2010, by a Master's Degree, in Metallurgical Engineering from The University of Utah.

Methods For Recycling Outdated Electronic Equipment

Electronic Waste Recycling An Overview

Like most mining ventures under taken by amateurs, processing e-waste can be a quick way to loss all your money. It seems easy, there is a lot of e-waste available with no real pathway for recycling beyond the existing scrap yards. There is a growing trend of people entering this business with little to no experience in recycling, materials handling, metals recovery or for that matter business.

At 911Metallurgist we are here to help. We have the experience required to develop a process for any number of e-waste streams but we will focus you on the high value, lowest effort approach first. People enter this market thinking they are going to recover every last oink from the pig – plastics, steel, aluminum, silica, etc. when in fact the intrinsic value of e-waste on a per unit basis (one computer) is very low – less than $US 3 each. There is a lot of material that has to be processed to cover costs let alone provide some profit. Our approach is one commonly held in mining (our backgrounds) “tons are worth more than grade.” We target the highest value materials, maximize recovery and minimize capital investment. We can

Placer Gold Analyzer XRF

placer gold xrf analyzer analysis method

HiGrade DPI is a novel analysis method for placer gold that relies on the distinct color of gold. Analyse surface or drill samples from a placer claim . Determine the gold grade and properties. Produce instant printable reports for each sampling location of the claim.


The pan concentrate is placed on a specially designed sample holder from where a high resolution image is created with an optical scanner. Then the automatic HiGrade DPI particle analyzer detects gold particles based on their golden color and calculates the gold grade of the sample. The automatically generated report includes unique statistics on the particle size distribution and particle shape. The analysis takes less than 5 min, requires no consumables and is non-destructive.



HiGrade offers a comprehensive tool kit for industrial and scientific applications, including dedicated prospectors, mineral laboratories, exploration firms and placer operations.

Exploration of Alluvial/Eluvial Gold Deposits

The topic of this short information is the exploration of deposits of not consolidated (loose) gold bearing material with free

Merrill Crowe Laboratory Testing Procedure

Efficient Merrill Crowe precipitation of gold and silver is dependent upon the proper control of certain physical and chemical properties of the solution. The most important of these properties are listed below:

Suspended solids: such as ore slime and precipitates of calcium carbonate, with hydrates of aluminum, magnesium and iron, present in the pregnant solution before clarification. These combined solids should be completely removed by efficient clarification.

Suspended precipitates: as above defined, which may continue to form in the solution after clarification. This formation occurs slowly and is almost completely prevented by clarifying and precipitating simultaneously.

Scale forming compounds: mainly the carbonates and sulphates of lime.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide gases dissolved in the solution: these prevent efficient precipitation of the precious metals. The solution must be oxygen free.

Cyanide strength: a small amount of free cyanide is necessary to catalyze the zinc:gold reaction but as little as 50 ppm of free cyanide should normally be sufficient. This is only the case if the solution is relatively free from base metals like copper.

Alkalinity: normally the solution pH is already above 10 as a result of leaching. pH should be maintained at this minimum level.

Copper: excess copper will prevent the zinc:gold reaction as it preferentially precipitates

Call For Contributors To Canadian Milling Practice 2020

canadian mineral processor

It is with great excitement that we announce the forthcoming release of Canadian Milling Practice 2020. This much anticipated volume will follow the tradition established in 1957 with the release of “The Milling of Canadian Ores”, followed by “Milling Practice in Canada” in 1978, and “Canadian Milling Practice” in the year 2000. The new edition, supported by the Canadian Mineral Processors (CMP) will provide an update on milling practice in Canada and around the world over the past 20 years with a focus on innovative technologies and practices. Submissions are invited from Canadian and international milling operations, mineral testing facilities, and university departments specializing in mineral processing. Submissions from operators should be 4 to 10 pages in length and suggested sections include:

  • Location
  • Brief Description of Operation
  • History
  • Orebody
  • Milling Practice (ideally including flowsheet and metallurgical balance)
  • Tailings Management
  • Power
  • Personnel
  • Operation Costs

Submissions from mineral testing facilities and university departments should be 1-2 pages in length and describe the facilities, staff and examples of previous work/research interests.

Expression of intent to contribute should be submitted to Professor Erin Bobicki ( or Charlotte Gibson ( as soon as possible and

How to Fast Track Construction a Mining Project

The construction schedule is a very important part of any complex construction project. If used properly it can alert the construction manager to a variety of problems including ability to complete the project on schedule, overtime construction required to keep on schedule, increase in construction personnel, impact of late equipment arrival, impact of detail engineering delays, and other potential problems.

The construction manager should be intimately aware of the schedule and include it in all weekly discussions with the contractor. Variances in schedule dates should be noted. If there is an impact on the completion date either an alternative should be formulated or management informed of the to fast track to construction a mining project

When delays of final construction completion are anticipated there are generally some means to bring the completion back on schedule at an additional cost. Decisions concerning cost of ameliorating delays should be made by the overall project management because other areas of the project may be delayed also. It usually is not practical to keep one part of a construction project on schedule by paying extra for timely completion when another part of the project cannot be completed

Column Flotation Parameters

Investigation of coarse bubble column flotation resulted in identification of four distinct beneficiation zones of a flotation column. Comparison of average normalised percent mineral upgrading per foot values (zkn) indicated the relative degree to which these zones contribute to overall column mineral grades and recoveries. The pulp-froth interfacial zone produced the most critical Zkn values of fluorite upgrading and silica rejection.

Retention time in the column zones caused mineral grade and recovery variations as column parameters such as froth height, feed injection location, and column length were varied. The basis for column length design was determined to be particle retention time in the collection zone of the column.

Wash water additions enigmatically affected fluorite grades and recoveries. Optimum wash water addition rate was 6 pct of the volumetric feed slurry flow rate.

Axial mixing problems encountered when scaling from a small- to a large-diameter column were simulated by recirculating a portion of the tailings stream to a point just below the feed injection port at different rates. This effectively broadened the particle retention time distribution in the collection zone. Extra column length is needed to compensate for this problem.

Coarse bubble column flotation proved superior to conventional flotation; column flotation produced much higher grade

How to Reduce Steel Consumption in Grinding Mills

The fact that over 25% of the original weight of steel liners and balls is discarded as waste is probably one of the factors that has not been considered often. This is particularly true for mill liners, “Mill liners are finished metal products of some precision, they cost two to four times the basic cost of steel shapes, and 25% of the new weight is thrown away when they are worn out”. Ideally, the liners and media should be inexpensive, long lasting, easy to install, easy to remove and should be worn to a very small fraction of the original weight.

Steel wear in grinding is of economic and metallurgical significance, especially when large diameter primary mills are used in grinding of abrasive low grade ores. As the operating costs are escalating with skyrocketing energy costs, the operators are giving increased attention to lowering unit costs. In addition, improved balls, liners and lifters contribute to higher productivity when grinding circuit availability factor is increased.

One of the aims of the minerals processors is to seek and use the possible means to obtain the most economical recoveries and lower the milling costs. Recent studies on the use of improved liner materials and design,

Grinding Circuit Modelling

Grinding Circuits

Fine grinding is carried out in five primary circuits, six secondary circuits and one regrind circuit which grinds copper scavenger concentrates and copper cleaner tailings. A diagram of the primary and secondary grinding circuits showing sample points and their identification is given in Fig. 1. Mechanical details of the ball mills are listed in Table 1.

Three of the five primary circuits (Nos. 2, 3 and 11) are closed with quadruplex rake classifiers and the other two with single 508 mm cyclones.

All six secondary circuits are closed with 508 mm cyclones and, under normal circumstances, all are gravity fed from a stationary segmented distributor. A deliberate circuit change was made prior to the survey; No. 7 circuit was removed from the distributor system and fed with the total product from No. 10 primary circuit (see Fig. 1) so that the performance of the distributor system could be compared with a simple primary/secondary arrangement. Fresh feed to the regrind circuit is pumped to three 380 mm cyclones which operate in closed circuit with the regrind mill.

Sampling and sample preparation

For two primary grinding circuits (Nos. 3 and 11) only fresh feed and classifier overflow samples were taken, but for the

Flotaire Flotation Cell

flotaire flotation cell tailingsThe Flotaire Cell can be constructed in many configurations, but presently, we prefer a round tank that is 2 to 4 m in diameter with an overall depth of about 5 m. Simplicity of design, and operation, is a principle attraction of the Cell and can be best understood by reference to Figures 1A and 1B. Near the bottom of the tank, one or two constriction plates are installed. If two plates are used, the bottom plate will have relatively large holes, about 1.6 cm, and the top plate will have smaller holes, usually 0.6 cm or 0.8 cm in diameter. Water for fluidizing the pulp and air for aerating the pulp pass through the constriction plates. Water induced into the bottom of the cell aspirates air into the cell, thus eliminating the need for a blower. It can therefore be seen that the water conventionally used only for dilution is normally used for three purposes in the Flotaire Cell, i.e., (1) dilution, (2) fluidize pulp, and (3) aspirate air into cell.

Ore to be beneficiated is normally fed to the top of the cell through a feed distribution box. Water

Total Cyanide Determination by Reflux Distillation

The determination of aqueous cyanide is accomplished by either detection in the sample as collected or by removal of the cyanide of the collected sample, followed by detection. The direct determination of the cyanide content of a solution can only be used in the simplest of systems, since many interferences can result in errors. Thus the most widely used method for total cyanide determination involve the reflux distillation of the sample using heat, acid and vacuum or air flow. The basic theory underlying this analytical approach is that by reducing the pH, the quality of molecular hydrogen cyanide will be increased and can be removed from the solution by elevating the temperature. The hydrogen cyanide is then collected in a caustic solution and analyzed.

The general approach of removing the cyanide from the sample by distillation represented a major advance in this area of analytical chemistry. It enabled the determination of cyanide in many additional types of samples. When it became apparent that the tightly bonded cyanide complexes were not being detected by this approach, many methods for complex ion destruction were proposed. These methods usually involved low pH adjustment with oxidizing mineral acids, coupled with the catalytic decomposition of the

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