Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

The first objective of Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy is to remove the Mineral as soon as freed and as coarse as possible” is the first rule in treating complex ores. Ores containing two or three metals have been satisfactorily treated for a number of years. Today, however, ores containing as high as four, five and even six and seven minerals are being efficiently concentrated. Such ores have always presented difficult problems. Only in the last ten years, after detailed studies and experiments were conducted both on methods and equipment, have treatment plants for highly complex ores reached any marked degree of success.

Two LEADING Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy METHODS

The two dominating principles which have brought greater efficiency to recovery of values from highly complex ores have been:

  1. Selective flotation which, although it has been used for a number of years, is still invaluable in treating most complex ores. The most outstanding developments in this stage of milling were improvements on the flotation machine itself. These have resulted in greater mechanical dependability, better recoveries, higher grade of products, and the elimination of pumps and elevators in circulating the pulp through the use of the gravity-flow principle.
  2. The most important of ….Read more

Solvent Extraction Training SX Course

Solvent extraction, the process of extracting a specific metal valve from a solution to concentrate and purify that metal is a multistage process involving liquid ion exchange. In the first stage the metal value, in this example copper, exists in the aqueous leachate as an copper ion. The aqueous leachate is mixed with a organic solution containing a ion specific extractant. The extractants commonly used for copper extraction are chelating agents which form a copper-chelate complex in the acid conditions of the leachate. The solubility of this complex is controlled by the pH of the aqueous solution. At low acid concentration of the leachate the formation of the copper-chelate complex is favored. At higher concentrations the equilibrium reverses and the hydrogen ion-chelate complex is formed. The copper and hydrogen chelate complexes are in the organic phase. When the reaction proceeds in the copper-chelating forming direction the process is termed Extraction, the reverse reaction is termed Strip.

The extraction reaction reaction is represented as:


The extractant reagents are mixed with a diluent to form the organic phase. The diluent used in this process, normally kerosene, and the extractant are immiscible with the aqueous solution. This ….Read more

PGM Platinum Mining & Extraction

  1. Platinum-based alloys for high temperature and special applications
  2. Development of alternative techniques for matte level measurements in sulphide smelting furnaces
  3. Keynote Address Seismic method applied to platinum exploration, a success story
  4. Breakeven extraction factors for the Merensky Reef using stope width and market price simulation
  5. Data integration for structural interpretation in the Bushveld Complex
  6. The optimization of mining method and equipment
  7. The influence of mill speed and pulp density on the grinding efficiency for secondary stage grinding
  8. High pressure grinding rolls – applications for the platinum industry
  9. Alternative support systems for mechanized stopes
  10. High density slurry and paste tailings, transport systems
  11. Mintek, a national resource of minerals processing expertise for platinum ores
  12. Electrochemical studies of the interaction of ethyl xanthate with Pd-Bi-Te
  13. Thought processes during the project initiation phase
  14. Project success and performance evaluation
  15. A framework for the introduction of mechanized mining
  16. The relationship between the owner’s project team and the ….Read more

Pyrometallurgy Research Articles & Papers

  1. Recent Improvements in the Kumera Steam Dryer
  2. Refining Testwork on Crude Magnesium Produced in the Mintek Thermal Magnesium Process
  3. Research in Pyrometallurgy at the University of Pretoria, 1980-2005
  4. SA Calcium Carbide
  5. Silicon processing from quartz to crystalline silicon solar cells
  6. Some considerations on future developments in ferro-alloy furnaces
  7. Some myths about DC arc furnaces
  8. Spinel Removal from PGM Smelting Furnaces
  9. Sulphuric Acid Manufacture
  10. The Beneficial Effects of Feeding Dry Copper Concentrate to Smelting Furnaces and Development of the Dryers
  11. The distribution of metallic elements in granulated nickel converter matte phases
  12. The dual-electrode DC arc furnace – modelling insights
  13. The history and development of the pyrometallurgical processes at Evraz Highveld Steel & Vanadium
  14. The ROMA project (Resource Optimization and Recovery in the Material Industry) – a typical cooperation project in Norway
  15. The smelting operations of Anglo American’s platinum business an update
  16. The thermophysical properties of raw materials for ferromanganese production
  17. Thermal conductivity of solidified manganese bearing slags – a preliminary investigation
  18. ….Read more

Base Metal Metallurgy Research Articles

  1. The product development and continuous improvement process for refractories in the base metals industry – A text book and practical perspective
  2. The upper ore body, a new dimension to Nchanga underground mining operation
  3. The use of sulphuric acid in the mineral sands industry as a chemical mechanism for iron removal
  4. Tomorrow’s technology-out of Africa-today
  5. Uranium recovery from acid leach liquors The optimisation of RIP-SX based flowsheets
  6. Water balances in hydrometallurgical refineries
  7. Water reduction at Skorpion Zinc and the impact on the environment
  8. What scale should your smelting testwork be done at, and what do you get for the money you spend
  9. 10 years of Zinc market development in Southern Africa (Keynote address)
  10. A case study on the operation of a Flottweg Tricanterr centrifuge for solvent-extraction crud treatment at Bwana Mkubwa, Ndola, Zambia
  11. A comparison of large bead ion exchange resins for recovery of base metals in resin-in-pulp (RIP) circuit
  12. A comparison of the effect of chemical and bioleaching on the kinetics of sphalerite leaching
  13. A review of the application of molecular recognition technology ….Read more

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