This data on chemicals, and mixtures of chemicals, commonly known as reagents, is presented for the purpose of acquainting those interested in froth flotation with some of the more common reagents and their various uses.

Flotation as a concentration process has been extensively used for a number of years. However, little is known of it as an exact science, although, various investigators have been and are doing much to place it on a more scientific basis. This, of course, is a very difficult undertaking when one appreciates how ore deposits were formed and the vast number of mineral combinations existing in nature. Experience obtained from examining and testing ores from all over the world indicates that no two ores are exactly alike. Consequently, aside from a few fundamental principles regarding flotation and the use of reagents, it is generally agreed each ore must be considered a problem for the metallurgist to solve before any attempt is made to go ahead with the selection and design of a flotation plant.

Types of Flotation Reagents

Flotation reagents may be roughly classified, according to their function, into the following groups: Frothers, Promoters, Depressants, Activators, Sulphidizers, Regulators. The order of these groups is no indication of their relative importance; and it is common for some reagents to fall into more than one group.flotation_reagent_testing

Flotation Frothers

What is the Function of Frothers

The function of frothers in flotation is that of building the froth which serves as the buoyant medium in the separation of the floatable from the non-floatable minerals. Frothers accomplish this by lowering the surface tension of the liquid which in turn permits air rising through the pulp to accumulate at the surface in bubble form.

The character of the froth can be controlled by the type of frother. Brittle froths, those which break down readily, are obtained by the alcohol frothers. Frothers such as the coal tar creosotes produce a tough bubble which may be desirable for certain separations.

Flotation machine aeration also determines to a certain extent the character of the froth. Finely divided air bubbles thoroughly diffused through the pulp are much more effective than when the same volume of air is in larger bubbles.

silver flotation

Common Types of Frothers

In practice the most widely used frothers are pine oil and cresylic acid, although, some of the higher alcohols are gradually gaining favor because of their uniformity and low price. The frothers used depends somewhat upon the location. For instance, in Australia eucalyptus oil is commonly used because an abundant supply is available from the tree native to that country.

How much Frother to Use

Frothers are usually added to the pulp just before its entrance into the flotation machine. The quantity of frother varies with the nature of the ore and the purity of the water. In general from .05 to .20 lbs. per ton of ore are required. Some frothers are more effective if added in small amounts at various points in the flotation machine circuit.

Overdoses of frother should be avoided. Up to a certain point increasing the amount of frother will gradually increase the froth produced. Beyond this, however, further increases will actually decrease the amount of froth until none at all is produced. Finally, as the excess works out of the system the froth runs wild and this is a nuisance until corrected.

Not enough frother causes too fragile a froth which has a tendency to break and drop the mineral load. No bare spots should appear at the cell surface, and pulp level should not be too close to the overflow lip, at least in the cells from which the final cleaned concentrate is removed.

Characteristics of Frothers

A good flotation frother must be cheap and easily obtainable. It must not ionize to any appreciable extent. It must be an organic substance. Chemically a frother consists of molecules containing two groups having opposite properties. One part of the molecule must be polar in order to attract water while the other part must be non-polar to repel water. The polar group in the molecule preferably should contain oxygen in the form of hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), carbonyl (CO); or nitrogen in the amine (NH2) or the nitrile form. All of these characteristics are possessed by certain wood oils such as pine oil and eucalyptus oil, by certain of the higher alcohols, and by cresylic acid.

Flotation Collectors & Promoters

What is Function of a Float Promoter/Collector

The function of promoters in flotation is to increase the floatability of minerals in order to effect their separation from the undesirable mineral fraction, commonly known as gangue. Actually what happens is that the inherent difference in wettability among minerals is increased and as a result the floatability of the more non-wettable minerals is increased to the point where they have an attraction for the air bubbles rising to the surface of the pulp.

In practical operation the function of promoters may be considered two-fold: namely, to collect and select. Certain of the xanthates, for instance, possess both collective and selective powers to a high degree, and it is reagents such as these that have made possible some of the more difficult separations. In bulk flotation all of the sulphide minerals are collected and floated off together while the gangue remains unaffected and is rejected as tailing. Non- selective promoters serve very well for this purpose. Selective or differential flotation, on the other hand, calls for promoters which are highly selective or whose collecting power may be modified by change in pulp pH (alkalinity or acidity), or some other physical or chemical condition.

Common Types of Flotation Promoters/Collectors

The common promoters for metallic flotation are xanthates, aerofloats, minerec, and thiocarbanilide. Soaps, fatty acids, and amines are commonly used for non-metallic minerals such as fluorspar, phosphate, quartz, felpsar, etc.

Promoters are generally added to the conditioner ahead of flotation to provide the time interval required for reaction with the pulp. Some promoters are slower in their action and in such case are added directly to the grinding circuit. Promoters which are fast acting or have some frothing ability are at times added directly to the flotation machine, as required, usually at several points. This practice is commonly known as stage addition of reagents.

How much Flotation Collector/Promoter to Use

The quantity of promoter depends on the character and amount of mineral to be floated, and in general for sulphide or metallic minerals .01 to .20 lbs. per ton of ore are required. Flotation of metallic oxides and non-metallic minerals usually require larger quantities of promoter, and in the case of fatty acids the range is from 0.5 to 2.5 lbs. per ton.

What are the Characteristics of a Collector

In general the requirements of an ideal promoter are that it combine collective power with selectivity, act speedily, resist decomposition, and be easily transported and handled.

Flotation Depressants

What is a Flotation Depressant used for

The function of depressants is to prevent, temporarily, or sometimes permanently, the flotation of certain minerals without preventing the desired mineral from being readily floated. Depressants are sometimes referred to as inhibitors.

Common Type of Flotation Depressants

Lime, sodium sulphite, cyanide, and dichromate are among the best known common depressants. Among organic depressants, starch and glue find widest application. If added in sufficient quantity starch will often depress all the minerals present in an ore pulp. Among the inorganic depressants, lime is the cheapest and best for iron sulphides, while zinc sulphate, sodium cyanide, and sodium sulphite depress zinc sulphide. Sodium silicate, quebracho, and also cyanide are common depressants in non-metallic flotation.

How much Flotation Depressants is needed

Depressants are generally added to the grinding circuit or conditioner usually before addition of promoting and frothing reagents. They may also be added direct to the flotation cleaner circuit particularly on complex ores when it is difficult to make a clean cut separation or where considerable gangue may be carried over mechanically into the cleaning circuit as in flotation of fluorspar. Quantity of depressants required depends on the nature of the ore treated and should be determined by actual test. For instance, lime required to depress pyrite may vary from 1 to 10 lbs. a ton.

Flotation Activators

What are Flotation Activators used for?

The function of activators is to render floatable those minerals which normally do not respond to the action of promoters. Activators also serve to render floatable again minerals which have been temporarily depressed in selective flotation. Sphalerite depressed with cyanide and zinc sulphate can be activated with copper sulphate and it will then respond to treatment like a normal sulphide. Stibnite, the antimony sulphide mineral, responds much better to flotation after being activated with lead nitrate.

The theory generally accepted on activation is that the activating substance, generally a metallic salt, reacts with the mineral surface to form on it a new surface more favorable to the action of a promoter. This also applies to non-metallic minerals.

Common Types Flotation Activators

Activators are usually added to the conditioner ahead of flotation and in general the time of contact should be carefully determined. Amounts required will vary with the condition of the ore treated. In the case of zinc ore previously depressed with zinc sulphate and cyanide, from 0.5 to 2.0 of copper sulphate may be required for complete activation. Quantities required should always be determined by test.

Flotation Sulphidizers

Why & When to use a Flotation Sulphidizer

The function of sulphidizers is to precipitate a film of sulphide on the surface of oxidized minerals or metals in order to make the surfaces more responsive to the action of promoters.

Common Types of Flotation Sulphidizers

The most widely used sulphidizer is sodium sulphide, which is commonly used in the flotation of lead carbonate ores and also slightly tarnished sulphides such as pyrite and galena. In the sulphidization of ores containing precious metals careful control must be exercised as in some instances sodium sulphide has been known to have a depressing effect on flotation of metallics. In such cases it is advisable to remove the precious metals ahead of the sulphidization step.

How much Flotation Sulphidizer is needed

Sulphidizers are usually fed into the conditioner just ahead of the flotation circuit. The quantity required varies with the characteristics of the ore and may range from .5 to 5 lbs. per ton. Conditioning time should be carefully determined and an excess of sulphidizing reagent avoided.

Flotation pH Regulators

What is a pH Regulator’s Function

The function of regulators is to modify the alkalinity or acidity in flotation circuits, which is commonly measured in terms of hydrogen ion concentration, or pH. Modifying the pH of a pulp has a pronounced effect on the action of flotation reagents and is one of the important means of making otherwise difficult separations possible.

The action of regulators may often be considered three-fold as follows:

  1. To precipitate soluble salts out of solution.
  2. To clean the mineral surfaces, thus enhancing the action of other reagents.
  3. To depress certain minerals.

Soluble salts may have their source in the ore or water, or both, and in precipitating them out of solution they generally become inert to the action of flotation reagents. Soluble salts have a tendency to combine with promoters thus withdrawing a certain proportion of the reagents from action on the mineral to be floated. Removal of the deleterious salts therefore makes possible a reduction in the amount of reagent, required. Complexing soluble salts by keeping them in solution yet inert to the reagents is in some cases desirable.

Mineral surfaces may vary according to pulp pH conditions as many of the regulators appear either directly or indirectly to have a cleansing effect on the mineral particle. This brings about more effective action on the part of promoters and other reagents, and in turn increases selectivity.

pH control by action of regulators is in some cases very effective in depressing certain minerals. Lime, for instance, will depress pyrite, and sodium silicate is excellent for dispersing and preventing quartz from floating. It is necessary, however, to have a definite concentration of the reagents for best results.

Common Types of pH Regulators

The common regulators are lime, soda ash, and sodium silicate for alkaline circuits, and sulphuric acid for acid circuits. Many other reagents are used for this important function. The separation required and character of ore will determine which regulators are best suited. In general, from an operating standpoint, it is preferable to use a neutral or alkaline circuit, but in some instances it is only possible to obtain results in an acid circuit which then will require the use of special equipment to withstand corrosion. Flotation of non-metallic minerals is at times more effective in an acid circuit as in the case of feldspar and quartz. The pulp has to be regulated to a low pH by means of hydrofluoric acid before any degree of selectivity is possible between the two minerals.

How much pH Regulator should be used

Regulators are fed generally to the grinding circuit or to the conditioner ahead of flotation and before addition of promoters and activators. The amounts required will vary with the character of the ore and separation desired. In the event an excessive quantity of regulator is required to obtain the desired pH it may be advisable to consider removing the soluble salts by water washing in order to bring reagent cost within reason.

Reagent Feeder

Flotation Reagents

The tables on the following pages have been prepared to present in brief form pertinent information on a few of the more common reagents now being used in the flotation of metallic and non-metallic minerals. A brief explanation of the headings in the table is as follows:

Reagent: Reagents are listed alphabetically according to their technical names or manufacturer’s trade designation.

Description: Includes chemical composition if known, color, and other physical characteristics useful in identification of the flotation reagent.

Usual Method of Feeding: Whether in dry or liquid form. A large number of reagents are available in liquid form and naturally are best handled in wet reagent feeders, either full strength or diluted for greater accuracy in feeding. Many dry reagents are best handled in solution form and in such cases common solution strengths are specified in percent under this heading. A 10% water solution of a reagent means 10 lbs. of dry reagent dissolved in 90 lbs. of water to make 100 lbs. of solution. Some dry reagents, because of insolubility or other conditions, must be fed dry. This is usually done by belt or cone type feeders designed especially for this service to give accurate and uniform feed rates.

Pasty, viscous, insoluble reagents present a problem in handling and are generally dispersed by intense agitation with water to form emulsions which can then be fed in the usual manner with a wet reagent feeder or using a pump.

Usual Quantity Fed: Average figures in lbs. of reagents per ton of mill feed are shown and are to be used only as a guide.

Price Per Lb.: Prices shown are approximate and in general apply to drum lots and larger quantities F.O.B. factory. This information is very useful when making tests to determine the lowest cost satisfactory reagent combination for a specific ore. Some ores will not justify reagent expenditures beyond a certain limit, and in this case less expensive reagents must be given first consideration.

Uses: General use for each reagent as given is determined from experience by various investigators. Although the Equipment Company uses a large number of these reagents in conducting test work on ores received from all parts of the world, opinion, data, or recommendations contained herein are not necessarily based on our findings, but are data published by companies engaged in the manufacture of those reagents.

The ore testing Laboratory of 911metallurgist, in the selection of reagents for the flotation of various types of ores, uses that combination which gives the best results, irrespective of manufacturer of the reagents. The data presented on the following tables should be useful in selecting reagents for trials and tests, although new uses, new reagents, and new combinations are continually being discovered.

The consumption of flotation reagents is usually designated in lbs. per ton of ore treated. The most common way of determining the amount of reagent being used is to measure or weigh the amount being fed per. unit of time, say one minute. Knowing the amount of ore being treated per unit of time, the amount of reagent may then be converted into pounds per ton.

The tables below will be useful in obtaining reagent feed rates and quantities used per day under varying conditions. The common method of measurement is in cc (cubic centimetres) per minute. The tables are based on one cc of water weighing one gram. A correction therefore will be necessary for liquid reagents weighing more or less than water. Dry reagents may be weighed directly in grams per min. which in the tables is interchangeable with cc per min.

In the table on the opposite page the 100% column refers to undiluted flotation reagents such as lime, soda ash and liquids with a specific gravity of 1.00. Ninety-two per cent is usually used for light pine oils, 27 per cent for a saturated solution of copper sulphate and 14 per cent for TT mixture (thiocarbanilide dissolved in orthotoluidine). The other percentages are for solutions of other frequently used reagents such as xanthates, cyanide, etc.

Flocculants

The action of promoting reagents in increasing the contact-angle at a water/mineral surface implies an increase in the interfacial tension and, therefore, a condition of increased molecular strain in the layer of water surrounding the particle. If two such mineral particles be brought together, the strain areas enveloping them will coalesce in the reduction of the tensionary system to a minimum. In effect, the particles will be pressed together. Many such contacts normally occur in a pulp before and during flotation, with the result that the floatable minerals of sufficiently high contact-angle are gathered together into ” flocks ” consisting of numbers of mineral particles. This action is termed “ flocculation ”, and obviously is greatly increased by agitation.

The reverse action, that of “ deflocculation ”, takes place when complete wetting occurs, and no appreciable interfacial tension exists. Under these conditions there is nothing to keep two particles of ore in contact should they collide, since no strain area surrounds them ; they therefore remain in individual “ suspension ” in the pulp.

Since substances which can be flocculated can usually be floated, and vice versa, the terms “ flocculated ” and “ deflocculated ” have become more or less synonymous with “ floatable ” and “ unfloatable ”, and should be understood in this sense, even though particles of ore often become unfloatable in practice while still slightly flocculated—that is, before the point of actual deflocculation has been reached.

Flotation Reagents Handbook


Flotation Reagents Equivalents

List of Flotation Reagents and Flotation Chemicals

Flotation reagentsHere is a List Flotation Reagents & Chemicals  prepared to present in brief form pertinent information on a few of the more common reagents now being used in the flotation of metallic and non-metallic minerals. A brief explanation of the headings in the table is as follows:

Reagent: Reagents are listed alphabetically according to their technical names or manufacturer’s trade designation.

Description: Includes chemical composition if known, color, and other physical characteristics useful in identification of the reagent.

Usual Method of Feeding: Whether in dry or liquid form. A large number of reagents are available in liquid form and naturally are best handled in wet reagent feeders, either full strength or diluted for greater accuracy in feeding. Many dry reagents are best handled in solution form and in such cases common solution strengths are specified in percent under this heading. A 10% water solution of a reagent means 10 lbs. of dry reagent dissolved in 90 lbs. of water to make 100 lbs. of solution. Some dry reagents, because of insolubility or other conditions, must be fed dry. This is usually done by belt or cone type feeders designed especially for this service to give accurate and uniform feed rates.

List Flotation Reagents

Below is a Full List of Flotation Reagents

Pasty, viscous, insoluble reagents present a problem in handling and are generally dispersed by intense agitation with water to form emulsions which can then be fed in the usual manner with a wet reagent feeder.

Usual Quantity Fed: Average figures in lbs. of reagents per ton of mill feed are shown and are to be used only as a guide.

Flotation Reagent Pumps

The performance of froth flotation cells is affected by changes in unit load, feed quality, flotation reagent dosages, and the cell operating parameters of pulp level and aeration rates. In order to assure that the flotation cells are operating at maximum efficiency, the flotation reagent dosages should be adjusted after every change in feed rate or quality. In some plants, a considerable portion of the operator’s time is devoted to making these pumping_reagentsadjustments. In other cases, recoverable coal is lost to the slurry impoundment and flotation reagent is wasted due to operator neglect. Accurate and reliable processing equipment and instrumentation is required to provide the operator with real-time feedback and assist in optimizing froth cell efficiency.

This process of optimizing froth cell efficiency starts with a well-designed flotation reagent delivery system. The flotation reagent pumps should be equipped with variable-speed drives so that the rates can be adjusted easily without having to change the stroke setting. The provision for remotely changing the reagent pump output from the control room assists in optimizing cell performance. The frother delivery line should include a calibration cylinder for easily correlating pump output with the frother delivery rate. Our experience has shown that diaphragm metering pumps of stainless steel construction give reliable, long-term service. Duplex pumps are used to deliver a constant frother-to-collector ratio over the range of plant operating conditions.

In most applications, the flotation reagent addition rate is set by the plant operator. The flotation reagents can be added in a feed-forward fashion based on the plant raw coal tonnage. Automatic feedback control of the flotation reagent addition rates has been lacking due to the unavailability of sensors for determining the quality of the froth cell tailings. Expensive nuclear-based sensors have been tried with limited success. Other control schemes have measured the solids concentrations of the feed, product, and tailings streams and calculated the froth cell yield based on an overall material balance. This method is susceptible to errors due to fluctuations in the feed ash content and inaccuracies in the measurement device.

Advances in Flotation Technology

ReagentDescriptionUsual Feeding MethodTypical Dosage lbs/tonUses
 Acid Sludge Oil refinery bi-product high in sulphuric acid Undiluted liquid 1.0 to 3.0Frother and promoter for bulk sulphide flotation
 Acid-ThioDissolve  5 grams dry thiocarbanilide in cold solution 100 grams concentrated H2so4, diluted with 25 grams of water. Solution .05- to .20 Thio This combination makes thiocarbanilide water soluble and is useful in selective flotation of lead and zinc.
 Aciterage OL A cationic surface active reagent formulated from Alkaterage  C with lactic acid, shellacol, and water 5-10% solution .25 to 1.00 Wetting, frothing, and emulsifying agent for floating non-metallic minerals in an acid circuit. Slime flocculator.
 Actinol C A crude Tall Oil 40-53% Rosin Acids, 40-52% fatty acids. Undiluted liquid .5 to 2.5 Flotation of non-metallic minerals.
 Actinol D A refined Tall Oil 46% Linoleic, 51% oleic. Undiluted liquid .5 to 2.5 Flotation of non-metallic minerals.
 Activated Carbon A finely divided activated carbon product. Dry 05 to 1.5 In some cases when used with xanthate higher grade sulphide concentrates have been produced.
 Aerofloat 15 15% phosphorus pentasulphide in cresylic acid. Undiluted liquid .05 to .20 Frother and promoter for gold and sulphides of silver, copper, lead and zinc.
  Aerofloat 25 25% phosphorus pentasulphide in cresylic acid. Undiluted liquid .05 to .20 In acid or neutral circuit is a strong non-selective promoter and frother for sulphide minerals.
 Aerofloat 31 31% phosphorus pentasulphide in cresylic acid. Undiluted liquid  .05 to .20 Excellent frother-promoter for galena and oxidized gold ores, also silver sulphides.
Aerofloat 203 A water soluble dry aerofloat reagent. 5-10% solution .05 to .20 Promoter for gold, silver, copper and zinc sulphide ores. Stronger than sodium aerofloat.
 Aerofloat 208A non-frothing water soluble dry aerofloat. 5-10% solution .01 to .10Alone or in the combination with reagent 301 is widely used for flotation of gold and silver.
 Aerofloat 211A water soluble dry aerofloat. Formerly sodium aerofloat B. 5-10% solution  .05 to .20 Same as sodium aerofloat B. A powerful selective zinc reagent.
 Aerofloat 213 A water soluble dry aerofloat. 5-10% solution .01 to .10 Promoter for gold, silver, copper and ores. Has some tendency to froth.
 Aerofloat 226 A water soluble dry aerofloat. 5-10% solution  .02 to .10 Similar to Aerofloat 213.
 Aerofloat 238 A water soluble dry aerofloat. 5-10% solution.02 to .15 Strong promoter for gold and silver, copper and zinc sulphide ores. Very little tendency to float pyrite in alkaline pulps.
 Aerofloat 241 Neutralized aerofloat 25. Greenish black liquid. 5-10% solution .05 to .15 Fast acting aerofloat promoter-frother for silver bearing lead ores, also copper and zinc sulphide.
 Aerofloat 242 Neutralized aerofloat 31. Black and water soluble. 5-10% solution.02 to .15 Similar to aerofloat 241 but a stronger promoter for copper, lead and silver sulphides.
 Aerofloat 243A water soluble dry aerofloat. 5-10% solution .02 to .15 Slightly stronger promoter than reagent 203.
 Aerofloat 249 Water soluble aerofloat. Brown to black color.  5-10% solution .02 to .15 Strong non-selective promoter for sphalerite, copper sulphides and gold ores. Also a frother.
 Aerosol OT 100% Sodium salt of di-octyl-sulfosuccinic acid. Resembles paraffin. 1% solution .01 to .20 Wetting and dispersing agent in treatment of oxides and non-metallic minerals.
 Alamac Acetate of Tallow amine. 5% water solution .10 to .50 Cationic reagent for flotation of non-metallics such as feldspar, potash and phosphate.
 Alamac 26-DAcetate of distilled tallow amine. 5% water solution .10 to .50 Cationic reagent for flotation of non-metallics such as feldspar, potash and phosphate.
 Alamine 26A tallow amine.5% water solution .10 to .50 Flotation of non-metallics.
Alamine 26-DA distilled tallow amine. 5% water solution .10 to .50Flotation of non-metallics.
Aliphat 44-ADouble distilled tall oil fatty acids primarily oleic and linoleic. Undiluted liquid .5 to 2.0 Fatty acid collector promoter for flotation of non-metallic minerals.
Aliphat 44-B Single distilled tall oil fatty acids. Primarily oleic, linoleic and rosin acids.Undiluted liquid .5 to 2.0Fatty acid collector promoter for flotation of non-metallic minerals.
Aliphat 44-E Fractionally distilled tall oil fatty acids. Oleic and linoleic acids low in rosin acids. Undiluted liquid.5 to 2.0Very effective collector-promoter for flotation of fluorspar.
Alkaterges A, E & T Cationic oil soluble surface active agents similar to Alkaterge C. Emulsion.25 to .50 Emulsification agents useful in non-metallic flotation.
 Alkaterage C A non-volatile high molecular weight cationic surface active amine type agent. Emulsion.25 to .50 Wetting, frothing, and emulsifying agent for non-metallic flotation.
 Aluminum SulphateCommonly known as alum, white crystalline water soluble solid solution Al2(So4)3. 18 H2O. 5-10% solution.1 to .5A good flocculating agent for slimes.
 AmijelA form of corn starch. Granular powder.1-2% solution.1 to .3Disperses gangue slimes and in some cases permits production of higher grade sulphide concentrates.
 Amine 220A mixture of high molecular weight amines. 5% solution.10 to .50Has been used to float silica and iron oxide from barite . Acts as frother and promoter.
Amono-PhosA crude mono-ammonium phosphate. Dry .5 to .30A modifying agent similar in action to soda ash and sodium silicate.
Annite Reagent A An amine soap. Water soluble powder. 1-2%.5 to 1.5Promoter for oxidized minerals such as lead carbonate. Effective without sulphidization.
Antifoam HFColorless liquid.Undiluted liquid.05 to .25 Froth modifier for use with cationic reagents.
 Armac 12-DDistilled N-dodecylamine acetate. Laurylamine acetate.1-5% water solution .05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Hematite, manetite, ilmenite, wolframite, scheelite, feldspar, monazite, chromite.
Armac 16-DDistilled N-hexadecylamine acetate. Palmitylamine acetate.1-5% water solution.05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Potash, phosphate, feldspar, mica, spodumene, beryl, silica, clays.
Armac 18-DDistilled octadecylamine acetate stearylamine acetate.1-2.5 water solution.05 to 1.00 Strong cationic collector. Same minerals as Armac 16 D.
 Armac CDDistilled primary amine acetate derived from cocoanut fatty acids.1-5% water solution.05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Same minerals as Armac 12 D.
Armac SDDistilled primary amine acetate derived from soya fatty acids.1-5% water solution.05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Same minerals as Armac 16 D.
Armac TTechnical primary amine acetate derived from tallow fatty acids.1-5% water solution.05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Same minerals as Armac 16 D.
Armac TDDistilled primary amine acetate derived from tallow fatty acids.1-5% water solution.05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Same minerals as Armac 16 D.
Armac HTDDistilled primary amine acetate derived from tallow hydrogenated fatty acids.1-2.5 water solution.05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Same minerals as Armac 16 D.
Armeen 12-D Distilled primary N-dodecylamine . Laurylamine .In isopropyl alcohol or kerosene solvent..05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Hematite, magnetite, ilmenite, wolframite, scheelite, feldspar, monazite, chromite.
Armeen 18-D Distilled primary N-hexadecylamine. Palmitylamine.In isopropyl alcohol or kerosene solvent..05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Potash, phosphate, feldspar, mica, spodumene, beryl, silica, clays.
Armeen CD Distilled primary amine derived from cocoanut fatty acids.Liquid or in isopropyl alcohol or kerosene solvent..05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Same minerals as Armeen 12-D.
Armeen SDDistilled primary amine derived from soya fatty acids. Liquid or in isopropyl alcohol or kerosene solvent. .05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Same minerals as Armeen 18-D.
Armeen TDDistilled primary amine derived from tallow fatty acids.In isopropyl alcohol or kerosene solvent..05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Same minerals as Armeen 18-D and Armeen SD
Armeen HTD Distilled primary amine acetate derived from tallow hydrogenated tallow fatty acids.In isopropyl alcohol or kerosene solvent..05 to 1.00Strong cationic collector. Same minerals as Armeen TD.
Arquad C33% active coconut tri-methyl ammonium chloride. 1-5% water solution..10 to 1.00 Weak cationic collector. Flotation of silica.
Arquad 2C50% active di-coconut dimethyl ammonium chloride.1-5% water solution..10 to 1.00Weak cationic collector for silica. Flocculating agent for slimes.
Arquad S50% active soya tri-methyl ammonium chloride.1-5% water solution..10 to 1.00Weak cationic collector. Flotation of paper pulp fiber, waste oils, fats, etc.
 Arquad T50% active tallow tri-methyl ammonium chloride.1-5% water solution..10 to 1.00 Weak cationic collector for silica. Same material as Arquad S.
Barium ChlorideBaCl2 water soluble crystalline solid.1-5% water solution. .01 to 1.00Modifier or quartz.
 Barium SulphideA grayish black powder. Dry 1.0 to 3.0 Sulphidizing agent for oxidizing minerals. High pH avoided by its use.
Barrett Flotation Oil No. 4Coal tar creosote oil. slightly more viscous than cresylic acid. Insoluble in water.Undiluted liquid .05 to 2.0Has strong frothing and collecting properties. Used on sulphide ores quite extensively.
Barrett No. 410Coal tar creosote oil.Undiluted liquid .05 to 2.0Froth modifier and promoter similar in action to Barrett No. 4.
Barrett No. 634 A coal tar creosote oil slightly more viscous than Barrett No. 4. Insoluble in water.Undiluted liquid.05 to .20Useful if a stiff and more persistent froth is desirable for sulphide flotation.
 Calcium PolysulphideA liquid calcium polysulphide.Undiluted 05 to 2.0Sulphidizer for lead carbonate and tarnished sulphides.
Calcium SulphiteCaSo3 2H2O. Insoluble white crystalline solid. Dry .1 to 5.0Similar in action to sodium sulphite for depressing iron and zinc sulphides.
CalgonSodium hexameta-phosphate. Water soluble glassy flakes.5-10% solution.0.1 to 1.0Excellent water softener, useful when floating non-metallics with fatty acids. Good dispersant.
Castor Oil Acids 9-11Distilled fatty acids of dehydrated castor oil. Clear liquid.Undiluted or emulsion.5 to 2.0Promoter of oxide and non-metallic minerals, similar to oleic acid in its action.
 Castor Oil Acids 135 Clear bright oily liquid. Octadecadienoic acids 9-11 and 9-12.Undiluted or emulsion.5 to 2.0Promoter of oxide and non-metallic minerals, similar to oleic acid in its action.
 Caustic Soda NaOH, flakes or pellets. Water soluble. 5-10% solution. .5 to 3.0Alkalinity regulator and dispersing agent for sulphide and non-sulphide flotation.
Caustic starchA water solution of starch and sodium hydroxide.1-2% solution .1 to .3Aids production of high-grade sulphide concentrates by depressing slimes, settling aid.
Cellulosics CMCSodium carboxymethyl – cellulose, ionic. Dry powder cellulose gum.Water dispersion .01 to .05A flocculant and dispersant; also a depressant or gangue slimes in flotation of sulphides.
Cellulosics HEC (Natrosol)Hydroxyethyl cellulose, non-ionic. Dry powder cellulose.Water dispersion.01 to .05A flocculant and dispersant useful in flotation of non-metallic and iron ore along with cationic promoter.
Cement Standard cement with variable lime content. Dry .5 to 2.0Alkalinity regulator. Has been used to depress pyrite and pyrrhotite.
 Coal tar A coal distillation by-product.Undiluted liquid.1 to .5Frother for sulphide minerals being replaced by more uniform reagents.
Copper SulphateA blue crystalline solid commonly known as blue stone or blue vitriol. CuSo4. 5H2OSaturated solution 025 to 1.0 Activator for sphalerite, arsenopyrite, and tarnished gold, the latter when used with caustic soda.
 Creosote coal TarA creosote produced as a coal tar distillation by-product.Undiluted liquid .1 to .3Frother and collector for sulphides. Produces a tough froth.
Creosote No. 1 Hardwood Black, slightly viscous liquid. Undiluted liquid .1 to .3Frother and collector for sulphides. Extensively used for gold flotation.
 Cresylic AcidA crude grade of carbolic acid. Straw color to dark brown.Undiluted liquid .05 to .20 Frother extensively used for lead sulphide flotation.
 CupferronAmmonium phenylnitroso-hydroxyl-amine. Solution .01 to .05A cationic collector for cassiterite. (Sno2) (experimental only).
 CyanideSodium cyanide eggs or granular. Very poisonous.5-10% solution..03 to .75Depressant for iron and zinc sulphide. Also depresses silica in presence of fatty acids.
 Daxad No. 23 Polymerized sodium salts of substituted benzoic alkyl sulfonic  acids. Water soluble brown powder.5-10% solution. .05 to .20Dispersing agent for gangue slimes. Best at pH 7.0 – 9.5 Aid in classification.
Denver SulphidizerA calcium polysulphide in liquid form. Undiluted liquid.5 to 1.5An inexpensive sulphidizer for lead carbonate. Has slight frothing properties.
DichromateNa2Cr2O7 2H2O. Sodium dichromate, an orange crystalline powder.5-10% solution.1.0 to 5.0Positive depressor for galena in copper, lead, zinc separations.
Dowforth 250Water soluble alcohol type frother. Undiluted liquid.01 to .05Excellent frother for selective flotation. Produces brittle froth. Does not attack rubber
Dresinates X, XX, TXSodium salts (soaps) of selected rosin acids.1-5% water solution.2 to 3.0 Anionic collector. Non-metallic flotation.
Duomeen TLight red soft paste. A diamine with 75-80% amine content. 1-5% emulsion.05 to 1.0Strong cationic collector.
Duponal 100Dry water soluble white flakes. Sodium octyl sulphate.5-10% solution.01 to .10Anionic collector. Flotation of molybdenite similar to Syntex L.
 Elastoil LLA dark colored liquid bi-product from linseed oil processing.Undiluted liquid.3 to 1.5A collector for non-metallics and tungsten minerals. Has little or no tendency to froth.
Emcol X-25Alkanolamine salt of a sulfated complex alcohol. 1-5% solution .1 to .5A cationic collector; also used as an emulsion with oleic acid or kerosene. See kerosene.
Emcol 4150 A complex fatty acid amite sulfate.Undiluted liquid.25 to 1.5Manganese flotation.
Emersol 300A distilled vegetable liquid fatty acid 95-98% free oleic.Undiluted liquid.5 to 2.0A fatty acid promoter-collector for flotation or fluorspar
Ethyl Silicate(C2H2)4SiO4. Water will hydrolize it to pure SiO2Undiluted liquid .05 to .25Similar in action to sodium silcate but for acid or neutral circuits where pH is critical.
 Eucalyptus OilAn oil extracted from eucalyptus tree.Undiluted liquid.05 to .20Frother used in place of pine oil in tropical countries.
 Ferric SulphateA water soluble iron salt. Fe2(So3) 4 plus water.10-20% solution. .5 to 1.5Activates arsenopyrite and tetrahedrite in presence of cyanide and zinc sulphate. Permits floating these minerals from sphalerite.
 Fish Oil Fatty AcidA mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Pasty and insoluble in water.Undiluted or with fuel oil. .5 to 1.5Anionic collector. A promoter and frother similar in action to oleic acid.
 Flexricin 9Propelene glycol monoricinoleate. Clear viscous liquid. Undiluted or emulsion05 to 2.0Highly polar. Flotationof non-metallic a nd oxide minerals.
FluorsparFinely ground acid grade calcium fluoride. CaF2Dry1.0 to 3.0Used with sulphuric acid to release fluoride ion required in selective flotation of feldspar from quartz.
 Fuel Oil Petroleum oils of various grades.Undiluted liquid .5 to 2.5Used for froth control and also in flotation of various metallics and non-metallics.
 GlueAn organic colloid powder.5% water solution.1 to .5 Depressant and slime regulator.
 Galactasol A food grade guar gum-dry powder flakes.1% water solution with Preservative.0.1 to 0.5Excellent slime flocculent and settling aid.
 GuartexIndustrial grade guar gum-dry powder flakes.1% water solution with Preservative. 0.1 to 0.5Excellent slime flocculent and settling aid.
Gum ArabicA white powder water soluble.5-10% solution .1 to .3A good dispersant and depressant for gangue slimes.
Hydrochloric Acid. Comercially known as muriatic. Approx, 32% HCl.Undiluted liquid.5 to 5.0To lower pH when necessary to float in acid circuit.
Hydrofluric Acid.Comercial 60% HF. Very corosive.Undiluted 10% solution. .5 to 4.0Extensively used in selective flotation of feldspar from quartz. Depresses mica.
 Hydrogen SulphideH2S gas or saturated water solution. Gas or water solution..25 to 1.0Sulphidizing agent from oxide minerals. Most effective in nascent forms from Ca or Na-polysulphide and sod-bicarbonate.
IndusoilRefined tall oil. Mixture of fatty and rosin acids. Undiluted liquid0.5 to 2.0Substitute for oleic and other fatty acids for floating non-metallic minerals and oxides.
InvadineSodium alkylbenzenesulfonate. Light tan powder. Water soluble. 5-10% solution. .2 to .5Wetting agent.
KeroseneA water white distillate from petroleum.Undiluted or emulsion.5 to 2.5 Promoter for coal and graphite. Best when emulsified with Emcol X-25 or similar reagents.Floats ink from paper pulp.
Lactic AcidC3H3O3. Colorless liquid.Undiluted liquid.25 to 1.0Depressant for mica.
Lead NitrateA white crystalline water soluble salt Pb(No3)25-10% solution. .5 to 1.5 Activator in flotation of sodium chloride from potash salts. Activates stibnite.
LimeCalcium hydroxide. White powder. Solubility 2.6 lbs. per ton of water. Slurry or dry. 1.0 to 10.0An alkalinity modifier regulator and depressor of pyrite. Used extensively in lead-zinc flotation.
 LiqroA Crude tall oil, bi-product from paper pulp manufacture.Water emulsion.5 to 2.5Contains fatty and resin acids and is used as a substitute for oleic acid in flotation of non-metallics.
Lintz Reagent R-52 A surface active agent dry powder. Non-toxic.4% water solution. 1.0 to 5.0An excellent flocculating agent useful in thickening and filtering.
Manganese SulfateMnSO4-Reddish. 5-10% water solution.1.0 to 5.0 Activator in flotation of manganese dioxide.
Mahogany Sherosope F-445 A dark brown of viscous liquid. Sodium salt of crude or refined petroleum sulfonic acids.5% solution. .1 to .5Has been used to float metallic and oxide copper ores. Also good to float carbonaceous or graphitic impurities from lead-zinc ores.
 Marsperse CBA water soluble ligno sulfonate. 5-10% solution.1 to .5A dispersing agent similar in action to Quebracho. Used in phosphate flotation.
Methyl Amyl AcetateA water white liquid with a high boiling point.Undiluted liquid.05 to .10Produces a very brittle froth. Similar in action to methyl amyl alcohol.
Methyl Amyl AlcoholA medium high boiling alcohol. Water high liquid.Undiluted liquid.05 to .10An excellent frother for selective flotation of metallics and non-metallics. Brittle forth.
Methyl Isobutyl CarbinolA higher alcohol water white liquid. Undiluted liquid.05 to .10An excellent frother for selective flotation of metallics and non-metallics. Produces a brittle forth.
Metso Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate. Approx. 57.5% Na2SiO3.Dry or 10% solution..5 to 1.5A substitute for sodium silicate as a gangue dispersant. Does not raise pH abnormally.
MicateA dry powder soap made from tall oil. 50.5% sodium oleate, 38% sodium abietate. 5% water solution.5 to 1.5 Flotation of non-metallics.
Minerec ADixanthogen (diethyl dithiobis thionoformate). Light yellow liquid.Undiluted to grinding circuit. .05 to .25An effective sulfide promoter in either acid or alkaline circuits. An excellent copper reagents.
Minerec B Similar to Minerec A.Undiluted to grinding circuit. .05 to .25Especially adapted to flotation of copper and gold ores in lime circuit. Non-frothing promoter.
Minerec 27Similar to Minerec A & BUndiluted liquid .05 to .25Powerful and selective collector for flotation of copper ores.
 Nacconol NRWhite flaky solid. Sodium alkylated aryl sulfonate.1-5% solution. – to .5A neutral surface active wetting agent possessing frothing and collecting properties for talc and similar non-metallics.
 Naphtha SolventCommonly known as Stoddard’s solvent. Water white liquid.Undiluted liquid.5 to 1.5Modifying agent when used with Tallso and other fatty acids in flotation of ilmenite and rutile from beach sand.
Naphthenic Acid “D” A petroleum bi-product.Undiluted liquid .5 to 2.0A frother and promoter for flotation of potash salts, barite, magnesite and various other non-metallics.
 Naphthenic Acid “P”A petroleum bi-product dark colored liquid.Undiluted liquid.5 to 2.0 Same as Napthenic Acid D.
Neofat 42-12 (formerly S-142)Tall oil fatty acids single distilled.Undiluted liquid  or emulsion.20 to 2.00Anionic collector for non-metallics such as fluorspar, barite, beryl, magnetite, hemotite, calcite, spodumene, phosphate.
 Neofat 42-06 (formerly D-142)Tall oil fatty acids double distilled.Undiluted liquid  or emulsion.20 to 2.00Anionic collector for non-metallics. Same as above.
Oleic acid A fatty acid commonly known as Red Oil.Undiluted liquid.5 to 2.0One of the most common promoter-collectors for flotation of non-metallic minerals. Used extensively for fluorspar.
Oronite Wetting AgentA viscous brown paste. Petroleum bi-product.Water solution.1 to 1.0Wetting agent in non-metallic flotation.
OrsoA blown neutral shop  of vegetable origin containing about 40% moisture 1-2% solution.2 to 1.0Promoter and collector for scheelite and other tungsten minerals.
OrthotoluidineA brownish black liquid. Very fluid. LiquidSee TT mixtureA frother and froth modifying agent. Excellent for mixing with cresylic or pine oil.
Pentasol Frother No. 26An amyl alcohol of special distillation range.Undiluted liquid.05 to 0.20A frother and froth modifying agent. Excellent for mixing with cresylic acid or pine oil.
Pine Oil Yarmor “F”A standard high grade pine oil of uniform consistency, steam distilled.Undiluted liquid.05 to 0.20An extensively used frother for bulk and selective flotation of sulphide minerals.
Potassium Permagnate KMnO4, crystalline solid 5% water solution .1 to 2.0A selective sulfide depressant.
Quebracho A tannic product containing approximately 70% tannic acid. Dry brown powder.5-10% solution.05 to .30An excellent depressor for calcite in fluorspar flotation. Also depressant for wolframite when floating sulphides.
Reagent 301An xanthate of a higher petroleum alcohol similar to Z-8. Light yellow powder.10% solution.05 to .15Promoter for sulphide and oxidized base metal ores the latter after sulphidizing.
Reagent 322A higher xanthate similar to Reagent 343.10% solution.05 to .15Strong promoter for all sulphide minerals.
Reagent 325An xanthate made from a lower alcohol than Reagent 301.10% solution.05 to .15Strong promoter for bulk flotation of sulphide minerals.
Reagent 343An higher xanthate similar to Reagent 301.10% solution.05 to .15Strong promoter for all sulphide minerals. Promoter activity between ethyl xanthate and Reagent 301.
Reagent 404Mercaptobenzthiazole. Greenish yellow water. Soluble pasty solid.5% solution.2 to .5Promoter for oxidized base metal ores. Also used for flotation of vanadium and auriferous pyrite ores.
 Reagent 425 A yellow to greenish yellow hydroscopic powder.5% solution .2 to .5 Developed primarily for flotation of oxidized copper ores. Promoterfor malachite and azurite without sulphidization.
Reagent 444A yellow water soluble powder. 5% solution.2 to .5An effective promoter for copper and zinc sulphide ores.
Reagent 610A dark colore powder. Slightly hydroscopic.2-5% solution.10 to 1.0A slime and gangue dispersant; aids production of clean concentrates.
Reagent 645A dark colore powder. Slightly hydroscopic. 2-5% solution .10 to 1.0A depressant for carbonaceous gangue, also arsenic  and antimony sulphides.
Reagent 710A fatty acid of vegetable origin. Dark brown to brownish black liquid.Undiluted if kept warm..5 to .20 Used as a substitute for oleic acid and other fatty acids for flot. of phosphate, fluorspar, and barite, replaces Reagent 708.
Reagent 712A clear amber to dark brown pasty liquid. Water soluble.5-10% solution.05 to 0.50A secondary promoter and frother for flotation of base metal precious metal, and non-metallic ores. Floats middlings.
Roccal 50% A high molecular alkyldimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride. Sanitizing agent. Germicide10% solution.01 to .02Useful floating bacteria, and solids from water. Non toxic 10 parts per million usually sufficient.
Rosin Amine D-Acetate (RADA 80%)A primary amine acetate. Water soluble. Also available in 50% and 70% aqueous grades.1-5% water solution.05 to 1.0A strong cationic collector for flotation of non-metallic minerals. Mica, quartz, and feldspar.
Reagent 801Dark colored viscous liquid petroleum sulfonic acids. Water soluble up to 30%.10-30% water solution .5 to 3.0Promoter for flotation of non-metallics, calcite, barite, tungsten, garnet, and iron ores.
Reagent 825Dark colored viscous liquid or paste. Petroleum sulfonic acids. 5-12% dispersion in water .5 to 3.0 Strong promoter similar to 801. More selective on some ores often mixed with 801.
Red OilSame as oleic acid. Commercial grade, low titre oleic-linoleic acids.Undiluted.5 to 2.0Anionic collector. See oleic acid.
Sapamine MSA cationic reagent. Clear liquid.Undiluted.1 to .3Promoter in floating silica from gypsum. Also useful in flotation of iron ores.
Soda AshNa2Co3. White water soluble powder. “Trona”.Dry or 10-20% solution1.0 to 5.0A widely used alkalinity regulator in selective flot. of lead-zinc ores. Also used in bulk and non-metallic flot.
 Sodium Aero float B (Now Aerofloat 211)A water soluble granular gray powder. Sodium diethyl dithiophosphate. 5-10% solution .5 to 2.0A powerfyl selective zinc promoter also used in flot. of gold, silver and copper from pyrite. Non-frothing.
 Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3. Water soluble white powder commonly known as baking soda. Dry or 10-20% solution .05 to .20Same general use as soda ash.In some cases improved results warrant its use. pH buffer.
 Sodium Bisulphite A white to yellow powder. Na2S2O510% solution .5 to 2.5 Similar in use to sodium sulphite as a depressant.
 Sodium DichromateOrange crystalline powder. Na2Cr2O7.2H2O 5-10% solution 1.0 to 5.0 See dichromate. Sulfide depressant.
 Sodium Ferro-cyanideNa4Fe (CN)6. 10H2O Crystalline powder. 5% solution.1 to 2.0Useful in floating molybdenite from bulk copper concentrates. A selective depressant for sulfides.
Sodium FluorideNaF. Insoluble white powder Dry .5 to 1.5May be used with sulphuric acid in flotation of non-metallics in place of hydrofluoric acid. Ilmenite and fluorspar flotation.
 Sodium Hydro-sulphideLight yellow crystalline solid approx. 72% NaHS. Sodium sulphydrate 5-10% solution .5 to 1.0Sulphidizing agrent used in place of and at times more effective than sodium sulphide.
 Sodium Hydro-sulphite A white powder. NaHSO2 5-10%.1 to 1.5Similar in action to sodium sulphite as depressant.
 Sodium MetasilicateCommonly known as “metso”Dry to 10% solution.5 to 1.5See Metso.
 Sodium Oleate A fatty acid soap. Made from oleic acid and sodium hydroxide.1-2% solution.5 to 2.0A promoter for oxides and non-metallic. Sometimes more effective than oleic acid.
Sodium Polysulphide Solid form of sodium polysulphide. Water soluble.10% solution.5 to 3.0A sulphidizing agent for oxide lead minerals similar in action to calcium polysulphide.
 Sodium Silicate Commonly known as water glass. Usual grade is 41° Baume. 10% solution .5 to 3.0 A depressant for gangue slimes and siliceous gangue minerals in sulphide and non-sulphide flotation.
Sodium PalconateThe unrefined soluble product which results when redwood bark is cooked with sodium hydroxide.Water dispersion 0.1 to 0.5Calcite depressant. Similar use to quebracho.
 Sodium Palcosulfonate (Palcotan)The unrefined product which results when redwood bark is cooked with sodium sulfite. 5-10% Water dispersion 0.1 to 0.5 Calcite depressant. Similar use to quebracho.
 Sodium SilicofluorideNa2SiF6. Slightly soluble white granule solid. Dry .5 to 2.5 Depressant for quartz and feldspar in flotation of spodumene.
 Sodium Sulphide A reddish brown flaky water soluble solid. Na2S. 9H20 10% solution .5 to 3.0Used to sulphidize lead and copper ores. Depressant for silver sulphide minerals and metallic gold.
 Sodium Sulphite Na2SO3. White granular water soluble solid. 10% solution .1 to 5.0 Depressant for zinc and iron sulphides. Used in place of cyanide particularly in ores containing silver.
 Sodium Tetra PyrophosphateNa4P2O7. 10H2O. White granular solid. 5-10% water solution 05 to 3.0 Has been used as a depressant for calcite in flotation of magnesite with napthenic acid. Dispersant.
 Starch Usually a white granular solid. Most effective when causticized. 1-5% solution .05 to .30 Floccculating agent and aids in depressing slime gangue when floating sulphides.
 Reagent Description Usual Feeding Method Typical Dosage lbs/ton Uses
Sulphuric AcidH2SO4. Strong acid. Common name of vitriol.Undiluted or as 10% solution.5 to .2.0Used to reactive pyrite after being depressed by lime or cyanide. Lowers Ph. Depress quartz.
Sulphurous AcidH2SO3. Available commercially as SO2 in liquid form.Gas or saturated sol..5 to 2.0To acidify flotation pulps and reactive pyrite. Substitute for sulphuric acid when source of supply permits.
Syntex LSulphated mono-glyceride of cocoanut oil derivation. Powder.5-8% solution.01 to .10Frother and promoter for molybdenite and its use permits greater selectivity.
Sonneborn Reagents (1-2-3)Petroleum sulfonates. Dark colored viscous liquids.Water solution emulsion0.5 to 3.0Non-metallic collectors for phosphate, barite, feldspar, fluorspar, manganese oxides.
Tannic AcidTannin C76H52046. Light brown powder.5% solution0.05 to 0.30Depressant for calcite. Can be used in place of quebracho but is more expensive.
Tall OilSee liqro and Indusoil.Undiluted or emulsion.5 to 2.5Used as a substitute for oleic acid and other fatty acids in flotation of non-metallics.
Tergitol Dispersant NPX (formerly NPG-101)Non-ionic surface active dispersant. Mixture of alkyl aryl polyglycol ethers.Undiluted liquid.05 to .30A wetting agent used in paper pulp flotation to depress cellulose fibers when de-inking.
Tergitol Penetrant No. 4Sodium lauryl sulphate: A surface active wetting agent.5-10% solution.25 to .75A wetting agent useful as a frother and collector in non-sulphide flotation.
Tergitol Wetting Agent No.7A surface active wetting agent.5-10% solution.25 to .75A wetting agent useful as a frother

and collector in non-sulphide flotation.

Terposol No. 3Mixture about 60% terpinyl methyl ethers balance tertiary terpene alcohols.Undiluted liquid.05 to .2Good frother with very little collecting properties.
ThiocarbanilideA white fluffy powder insoluble in water. 1,3-Diphenyl 2-thiorea.Dry to grinding mill.05 to .10A good promoter for lead, zinc, copper and silver ores. Excellent for selective flotation of sulphides.
Thiocarbanilide 130A cream to white dry powder. Wettable.Dry or 5-10% slurry.05 to .10Same general use as thiocarbanilide but more dispersible.
Tragacine PowdaflocA starch base powder.Make paste then dilute to 2-10% solution.1.0 to 1.5Flocculating agent settlement of slimes.
Tri-Sodium PhosphateNa3PO4. 12H2O. Water soluble. White solid.5-10% solution.5 to 3.0An alkaline detergent and water softener useful in flotation of non-metallics. Slime dispersant and depressant.
Triton k-60Dimethyl cetyl benzyl ammonium chloride. Aqueous solution.Undiluted.10 to .30A cationic collector for non-metallic minerals.
TrostolA crude tall oil product. Approximately 48% rosin acids and 52% fatty acids.Undiluted or emulsion.5 to 2.5A substitute for oleic and other fatty acids as a collector for non-metallic minerals.
TT MixtureMade by dissolving not more than 15% thiocarbanilide in hot orthotoluidine.Undiluted (hot) mixture..25 to .50A good promoter of lead, copper and silver ores. Thiocarbanilide solubility increased in this form.
Turkey Red OilSulphated and sulfonated castor oil. Viscous.Undiluted or emulsion.5 to 1.5Promoter and frother similar in action to oleic acid.
Ultrawet DSDry powder. Sodium alkyl aryl sulfonate 85% active.10-20% solution.05 to .30An anionic wetting and dispersing agent. Also an excellent frother-collector for talc and steatite.
Ultrawet 30-DSA 30% aqueous solution of ultrawet DS.10-20% solution.10 to .60Same as ultrawet DS. Aqueous solution.
Vapor OilA pale neutral petroleum hydrocarbon oil low in paraffin wax.Undiluted liquid.25 to 1.0Flotation of molybdenite used with pine oil and Syntex L.
Wattle Bark ExtractA tannin product similar to quebracho.5-10% solution.05 to .30Calcite depressant when floating fluorite with fatty acids.
Xanthate Z-3C2H3OCSSK. Potassium ethyl xanthate, yellowish gray pellets.10% solution.05 to .30One of the most widely used collectors for bulk flotation of copper and other complex sulphides.
Xanthate Z-4C2H3OCSSNa. Sodium ethyl xanthate. Pale yellow pellets.10% solution.05 to .30Same as Z-3 but preferred by some on account of its higher xanthate content.
Xanthate Z-5C5H11OCSSK. Potassium sec amyl xanthate. Yellowish brown pellets.10% solution.01 to .20A powerful collector and flocculator for flotation of slow floating and semi-oxidized sulphides.
Xanthate Z-6C5H11OCSSK. Potassium amyl xanthate. Grayish pellets.10% solution.01 to .20Collector power of the same order as Z-5. Excellent for metallic gold arsenopyrite, and slow floating sulphide minerals.
Xanthate Z-8C4H9OCSSK. Potassium sec butyl. Dark yellow pellets.10% solution.01 to .20Superior to Z-9 in collecting power. Excellent for tarnished sulphide minerals or metallics.
Xanthate Z-9C3H7OCSSK. Potassium isopropyl xanthate. Slightly yellow gray pellets.10% solution.05 to .30Collector of lead-zinc-iron sulphide ores. Superior collecting power and selectivity toward pyrite in cleaner circuits.
Xanthate Z-11C3H7OCSSNa. Sodium isopropyl xanthate. Yellowish white pellets.10% solution.05 to .30Lead-zinc selective flotation. Improved selectivity.
YellowDexthrineA yellow amorphous powder. A starch product.10% solution.1 to .3Slime and insoluble depressant in flotation of copper and other metallic sulphides. Add to cleaners.
Zinc HydrosulphiteA water soluble white powder.10% solution.5 to 1.5Depressant similar in action to sodium sulphite. Best in acid circuit.
Zinc SulphateA white granular water soluble powder.5-10% solution.5 to 1.5Depressant for pyrite and sphalerite in selective flotation of lead, zinc and copper ores.

Flotation Chemical and Reagents

Absorbents and adsorbentsSodium ferrocyanideFerric sulfateAnthracite, bituminous, lignite carbon
Activated aluminaSodium fluorideInorganic flocculantsDiatomaceous earth
Activated carbonSodium hydrosulfideLimePerlite
Coconut shell carbonSodium hydroxideNon-ionic polymersSpecialty filtering aids
Ion exchange resinsSodium metasilicatesOrganic flocculantsSpecialty flocculants
Molecular sieveSodium silicatesSpecialty flocculantsSurfactants
PerliteSodium sulfideCollectorsFrothers
Silica gelSodium zinc cyanideAbsorbentsAlcohols
Acids and acid cleanersSpecialty and commodity activatorsActivated carbonCustom blends
Acetic acidSulfur dioxideAlcoholsFlotation oil
Custom blendsSulfuric acidAminesMBC
Fatty acidsSurfactantsCoconut shell carbonPine oil
Formic acidTall oilCresylic acidSpecialty frothers
Gluconic acidThionocarbamatesCustom blendsGas treating
Hydrochloric acidXanthatesDextrinGas treating
Hydrofluoric acidZinc sulfateDithiophosphatesAbsorbents
Hydroxyacetic acidAlcoholsFatty acidsActivated aluminum
Lactic acidButanolFlotation oilActivated carbon
Leaching chemicalsCustom blendsIon exchange resinsAlcohols
Nitric acidCyclohexanolMercaptobenzothiazoleAmines
Oleic acidIsobutanolOrganic sulfonatesAmmonia
Organic sulfonic acidIsodecanolSpecialty collectorsAmmonium hydroxide
Oxalic acidIsopropanolTall oilCustom blends
Phosphoric acidMethanolThionocarbamatesDEA
Sulfamic acidMIBCThiophosphate collectorsDefoamers
Sulfuric acidPropanolXanthatesMoleccular sieve
Activators, modifiers and depressantsSpecialty alcoholsXanthogen formatsMonoethanolamines
Fatty acidsBasesCrystal growth modifiersPottasium hydroxide
Ferric chlorideCaustic sodaAlkyl aryl sulfonatesSilica gel
Ferric sulfateLimeSodium ferrocyanideSoda ash
Ferrous sulfateMagnesium oxideDefoamersSpecialty solvent
Hydrochloric acidPotassium hydroxideSilicone defoamersUrea
Hydrofluoric acidSoda ashSpecialty defoamers, numerousAlkyl aryl sulfonates
Hydroxyacetic acidChelating agentsTributyl phosphatePolypropylene glycols
Lead acetateCitric acidElectrolytic refining chemicalsIon precipitants and metal value recovery aids
Lead chlorideCustom blendsAbsorbentsActivated aluminum
Lead nitrateDETAAmmonium chlorideActivated carbon
LithargeEDTAManganese dioxideActivated carbon, coconut shell
Lignin sulfonateHydroxyacetic acidOrganic sulfonatesCarbon, anthracite bituminous, lignite
MercaptobenzothiazoleSodium cyanidePotassium carbonatesDiatomaceous earth
Non-ionic polymersCoagulants and flocculantsPotassium permagnateFerric chloride
Organic sulfonatesAlumStrontium carbonateFerric sulfate
Organic sulfonic acidAnionic polymersFiltering aidsFerrous sulphate
Oxalic acidCationic polymersAbsorbents
Potassium permagnateCresylic acidActivated aluminia
Soda ashCustom blendsActivated carbon
Sodium cyanideFerric chlorideActivated carbon, Coconut shell

Other Mining Reagents and Chemicals

Ion precipitants and metal value recovery aids (continued)Slurry viscosity reducersTributyl phosphateHydrochloric acid
 Floor dryCustom blendsTriethanolamineHydrofluoric acid
Lead acetateDispersantsSurfactants Hydrogen peroxide
Lead chlorideGlycolsCarbon blanking agentsHydroxyacetic acid
Lead nitrateSodium hexametaphosphateCustom blendsInhibitors-corrosion
MethanolSodium silicatesDefoamersInorganic flocculants
Sodium sulfideSodium tripolyphosphatesDispersantsIodine
Zinc dustSpecialty viscosity reducersEmulsifiersIon exchange resins
Machinery maintenance, repair and operationSurfactantsSurface tension modifiersLime
AbsorbentsSmelter chemicalsWetting agentsMagnesium hydroxide
Activated aluminiaAbsorbentsWater treatmentMagnesium oxide
Activated carbonAcidsAbsorbentsMolecular sieve
Coconut shell carbonActivated aluminaAcetic acidMuriatic acid
AlcoholsActivated carbonAcidsNitric acid
Antifreeze, glycol-basedAmmonium chlorideActivated carbonNon-ionic polymer
Calcium chlorideAntimony potassium tartrateAlumOrganic flocculants
Carbon tetrachlorideArsenic trioxideAluminum chloridePerlite
Custom blendsBarium carbonateAluminum potassium sulfatePhosphoric acid
Dedust agentsBone glueAminesPotassium iodide
DetergentsBoraxAmmoniaPotassium permagnate
GlycolsCaustic sodaAmmonium silicofluorideSilica gel
Inhibitors – corrosionCopper arsenateAmmonium sulfateSilicone defoamers
Mineral oilsCopper sulfateAnionic polymersSlurry viscosity reducers
Specialty solventsCustom blendsAmmonium hydroxideSoda ash
Trisodium phosphateFluorsparBarium carbonateSodium aluminate
UreaLead chlorideBarium chlorideSodium bicarbonate
Mining and ore digging aidManganese dioxideBasesSodium bisulfite
Antifreeze, glycol-basedMineral oilsBentonite claysSodium carbonate
Calcium chlorideMold release agentsBiocidesSodium chlorate
Conveyor belt antifreezeSilica gelBleachSodium chloride
Custom blendsSilica sandBoiler water treatmentSodium chlorite
Dedust agentsSoda ashBromineSodium chromate
DetergentsSodium nitrateCalcium fluorideSodium fluoride
MethanolSodium silicatesCalcium hydroxideSodium hexametaphosphate
Sodium chlorideStrontium carbonateCalcium hypochloriteSodium hydroxide
Pelletizing aidsSulfamic acidCalcium oxidesSodium metabisulphite
Bentonite claysSulfurCarbon, anthracite, bituminous, ligniteSodium nitrate
Custom blendsThioureaCationic polymersSodium phosphate
Pumping, shipping & storage aidsZinc dustCaustic sodaSpecialty flocculants
Antifreeze, glycol-basedSolvent extraction Chelating agentsSulfamic acid
Calcium chlorideAcidsChlorineSulfur dioxide
Conveyor belt antifreezeAlcoholsCitric acidSulfuric acid
Custom blendsChelating agentsCopper sulfateSurfactants
Dedust agentsCobalt sulfateCresylic acidTerra sodium pyrophosphate
GlycolsCustom blendsCustom blendsTricalcium phosphate
Lignin sulfonateDefoamersDefoamersTrisodium phosphate
Silicone defoamersDiluents, specialtyDETA
Slurry viscosity reducersIon exchange resinsDiatomaceous earth
SurfactantsIsodecanolDisodium Phosphate
Leaching chemicalsDispersants
Mineral oilsFerric chloride
MonoethanolaminesFerric sulfate
Specialty solventFerrous sulfate
Sulfuric acidHydrazine

Flotation Reagents

Flotation Reagents 2

Flotation Reagents 3

Flotation Reagents 4

Flotation Reagents 5Flotation Reagents 6 Flotation Reagents 7
Flotation Reagents 8

 

Flotation-Frothers
Reagents and Chemicals

Flotation Reagent Manufacturers

Flotation Reagent Suppliers

Gold Mining Chemicals


Source: This article is a reproduction of an excerpt of “In the Public Domain” documents held in 911Metallurgy Corp’s private library.

 

A series of simple math models have been developed to assist in the engineering analysis of batch lab data taken in a time-recovery fashion. The emphasis is to separate the over-all effect of a reagent or operating condition change into two portions : the potential recovery achievable with the system at long times of flotation, R, and a measure of the rate at which this potential can be achieved, K.

Such patterns in R and K with changing conditions assist the engineer to make logical judgements on plant improvement studies. Standard laboratory procedures usually concentrate on identifying some form of equilibrium recovery in a standard time frame but often overlook the rate profile at which this recovery was achieved. Study has shown that in some plants, at least, changes in the rate, K, are more important relative to over-all plant performance than changes in the lab measured recovery, R. Thus the R-K analysis can serve to improve the engineering understanding of how to use lab data for plant work. Long term plant experience has also shown that picking reagent systems having higher K values associated can be beneficial even when the plant, on the average, is not experiencing rate of mass removal problems. This is due to the cycling or instabilities that can and do exist in industrial circuits.

It is also important to note that the R-K approach does not eliminate the need for surface chemistry principles and characterization. Such principles and knowledge are required to logically select and understand potential reagent systems and conditions of change in flotation. Without this, reagent selection is quickly reduced to a completely Edisonian approach which is obviously inefficient. What the R-K analysis does is to provide additional information on a system in a critical stage of scale-up (from the lab to the plant) in a form (equilibrium recovery and rate of mass removal) which are interpretable to the engineer who has to make the change work.

The influence of operating conditions such as pH, temperature of feed water, degree of grind, air flow rate, degree of agitation, etc. have been characterized using the R-K approach with clear patterns evolving.

The effect of collector type and concentration on a wide variety of ore types have been studied with generally rather clear and sometimes rather significant patterns in R and K. The quantitative ability to analyze collector performance from the lab to the plant using the R-K profiles has been good.

The effect of frother type on various ores has also been undertaken with good success in differentiating between the qualitative directions and effects involved. However, the actual concentrations required in plants have not, in at least some tests, been accurately predicted. Thus further work remains in this area but in almost all cases the qualitative information on frothers that has been gained has proven very valuable in test work as a guide.