Overflow to Underflow Flowrate Ratio Effect on Dense Medium Cyclone Performance

In the dense medium cyclone separation of coal, the overflow to underflow (O/U) flowrate ratio has not been considered as a major parameter in correlation with the cyclone performance, since it is not directly adjustable. It is a common practice in the optimization of cyclone performance, however, to stipulate the range of cyclone orifice diameter … Read more

Extender Oils for Flotation of Coarse Potash

In order to float coarse sylvite particles, Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc. (PCS) uses amines and extender oil. Since the content of polycyclic aromatic (PCA) compounds in Esso 904 oil is high, PCS has sought a suitable replacement. Various types of physicochemical tests, including measurements of the electrokinetic potential of emulsified oil droplets, oil/water interfacial … Read more

Segregation Process for Treatment of Copper-Cobalt Oxide Ore

The segregation process has been known for many years and applied industrially for the treatment of various refractory copper ores. The principles of the process are briefly reviewed; the process was tested in the laboratory on two copper-cobalt oxide ores from Gecamines, Shaba Province, Zaire. Various parameters of the process, such as segregation temperature, dosage … Read more

Flotation Frother vs Collector Interactions

In the froth flotation process, different types of surfactants are used to carry out specific and well defined functions. For example, an anionic surfactant such as xanthate is added as a collector in the flotation of sulphide minerals and adsorbs at the mineral/aqueous solution interface causing an hydrophobization effect. In addition, non-ionic surfactants are added … Read more

Fluorspar Beneficiation by Packed Column Flotation

Acid-grade fluorspar is utilized in the production of hydrofluoric acid from which a variety of organic and inorganic fluoride chemicals are made, including synthetic cryolite and elemental fluorine. The manufacture of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is the volume leader in the fluorine chemical industry. Price and market specifications for fluorspar depend on supply and demand, and often … Read more

How to Select a Sample Size for Ore Evaluation

The semivariogram is a geostatistical tool to show several geological features which are important in mineral deposit evaluation, such as the continuity, size and shape and it is used for many mining purposes. Stationary conditions must be satisfied if the semivariogram calculated in one part of the mineralization is to be used in another part, … Read more

Inductive Electrostatic Gradiometry IESG

IESG is an inexpensive but valuable component of our interdisciplinary integrated effort to discover and to understand hydrothermal convective plumbing systems, with originally hot, reducing, upward-flowing components yielding present negative IESG anomalies, and with originally cold, oxidizing, downward-flowing components yielding present positive IESG anomalies. This technique should facilitate the meaningful sampling of subtle Carlin-type invisible … Read more

Bioleaching Refractory Oxide Ore to Recover Silver

Numerous manganiferous silver deposits occur throughout the southwestern United States which remain undeveloped due to their refractory nature. In some cases, silver (Ag) is entrapped within minerals such as pyrolusite (MnO2) and is not amenable to cyanide extraction. Similar deposits occur in which molybdenum (Mo) or copper (Cu) is entrapped within goethite (FeOOH) or similar … Read more

Copper Extraction from Smelter Flue Dust

Process Elements The process flow sheet is shown in Figure 1 and consists of the following steps: roasting a pelletized mixture of hydrated ground lime and flue dust to fix arsenic and sulfur; a venturi scrubber removes dust and any trace of escaping arsenic and sulfur. heap or vat leaching the roasted pellets with a … Read more

How to do a Mass Balance in Spreadsheet – Excel

The “mass balance” is unquestionably the most common class of problems for the process engineer. Closely related, mathematically, is the “heat balance”. Every laboratory test requires a mass balance to describe the results. Mass balance calculations can be subdivided into several sub-categories based on whether the results are time dependant or not and depending on … Read more