free geology course onlineHere is a “how” series on ore mineral deposit formation acting as a FREE Online Exploration Geology Courses to help non-technical people understand ore deposits, how they form, how they are explode for, how they are evaluated and mined and how the metals and minerals are extracted from the ore. The talks highlights some of the features of the main ore deposit types that you may come across and provide an introduction to the vocabulary that use by exploration and mining companies.

You can also read these totally great paper and listed here:

I took this from a series of great exploration geology articles located at explonationinsights.com

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Here a the series in this ore deposits Exploration Geology Course series. Each talk covers one or more of the major ore deposit types.

  1. This first guide is more of an introduction and it covers plate tectonics and the fundamental role that a plate tectonics plays in the formation of many ore deposit types. The geology course will cover various ore forming processes concentrating particularly on those associated with the cooling and crystallization of magma as they rise through the earth’s crust.  Here we point out that because of our limitations in current mining technology (Hard Rock-Mining-Engineering-Handbook) all metals and minerals that we use are mined from the earth’s crust. We also noted that the average abundance of metals in the crust wasn’t high enough for economic mining and that nature needed to provide a significant concentration of the metals and minerals in order to make grades which can be economically mined. Describing the process of partially melting rocks to concentrate metals into the melt portion and bringing that melt up through the crust to a shallower depth where it can be mined while cooling it to allow valueless minerals to crystallize out and be left behind and the remaining melt to be enriched in metals. I also mentioned that certain minerals that we do want sometimes crystallize or separates out early in this cooling process. These include chromium, platinum, copper, nickel, and diamonds and today I’m going to talk about these metals and minerals are starting with the copper nickel sulfide deposits and then the platinum chromium deposits and ending up with diamonds and for each of these you will learn about; how the deposits formed, Some of the better-known examples of each of these deposit types and how you explore for them.
  2. How are Ore Mineral Deposits Formed series will focus on deposits associated with mafic layered complexes such as nickel, the platinum group metals and igneous rocks. The best known of these layered intrusions of the Bushnell complex in South Africa. Included in this free online geology course is a section about kimberlites and their associated diamond deposits and learn that diamonds originate in kimberlite pipes or dykes including those in placid deposits. Kimberlite is an ultramafic rock derived from the mantle. Diamonds crystallize in the mantle well below the crust but they are carried up into the crust by the rising kimberlitic magma.
  3. This will focus on exploration for porphyries deposits, those massive but low grade deposits of copper, molybdenum and gold that roam the Pacific Ocean. We’ll also briefly discuss iron oxide copper gold deposits IOCG in this talks such as the Giant Olympic Dam deposit in South Australia. Included in a short copper extraction process description. Porphyries and IOCG’s are generally very large but low grade. Skarns do not necessarily have the same characteristics. Porphyries and IOCG’s are generally fairly homogenous in grade. There may be some zoning and variation of metal ratios but over tens of meters grade tends to be pretty consistent. Skarns again do not fit this pattern and they can vary considerably in grade just over a few meters. Once you’ve see a few porphyries you’ve seen them all. The reverse is true of IOCG’s so that deposits at each end of the spectrum of iron oxide copper gold deposits IOCG can be totally unrecognizable as belonging to the same group of deposits. Porphyries, skarns and IOCG deposits very often have both oxidized and unoxidized portions. This is important as it impacts on capital costs. Capital cost for building up porphyries and IOCG mines are generally high compared to other deposit types. This is due to the combination of multiple ore streams and the huge size and tonnage needed. Geophysics plays a crucial role in exploration for each of these deposits.
  4. This course will deal with vein deposits that formed deep in the crust and host gold and copper. Most prolific of these are those found in the ancient greenstone belt which provide a significant proportion of the world’s gold production.  Orogeny refers to forces and events leading to a large structural deformation of the Earth’s lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between tectonic plates. Vein deposits form from hydrothermal fluids rising through earth’s crust toward its surface. These fluids, commonly created by magma moving through the earth’s crust, travel the path of least resistance through fractures and faults in the rock. There are two basic types of vein deposits you can explore for: epithermal and mesothermal deposits.
  5. Covers the so-called epithermal deposits geology. These are formed at shallow depths and are host to gold deposits and silver and sometimes lead and zinc as well. The Yanacocha deposit in Peru which had reserves a 32 million ounces in 2005 belongs to this group of deposits. High sulphidation epithermal deposits compared to low sulphidation epithermal deposits marks the ores for exploration.
  6. How are Ore Mineral Deposits Formed will be dedicated to Carlin gold deposits and how to explore for. Carlin Type Gold System. Carlin deposits are very attracted to major mining companies as they can be very big and they are often high-grade as well they are indeed big elephants. They are hosted in dirty limestones in Nevada, this means mainly in the lower plate rocks and associated with long-lived crustal scale faults. The gold itself is to fine to see with the naked eye or to pan; the so-called micron gold.
  7. Addresses the Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides or VMS deposits as well as Sedimentary Exhalative Ore Deposits which are formed by hot springs on the seafloor and are a major copper, lead, zinc and gold producers. When comparing VMS and SEDEX deposits, you understand the differences.
  8. Covers the Witwatersrand gold deposits in South Africa, the biggest source of gold on earth. The Witwatersrand Gold Deposits are biggest elephants of all in the world of giant’s gold ore deposits. The Witwatersrand gold deposits. It thought it might be interesting to start of today’s talk with a bit of history and run through the events that led up to the discovery of the Witwatersrand gold fields. Except for a fluke of nature these large gold deposits might never have been discovered even as there are claims to be the biggest elephants of all. The greatest controversies in the geological world; the genesis of the Witwatersrand Gold ore deposits. There are two main competing theories of origin and then offer a third possibility. Review a short section on how these remarkable deposits are mined and the technical and social issues involved which will lead us onto the last section; what is the future of the Witwatersrand gold industry.
  9. How are Ore Mineral Deposits Formed will deal with the most common types of Uranium deposits and the last two don’t deal with specific ore deposit types, Instead they deal with exploration and the evaluation of deposits. Uranium is not rare and it incurs in most rocks. It’s just a question of finding the rocks with higher and more consistent grades. Deposits can be split into primary deposits those within the original igneous source rock and secondary deposits where the uranium has been leached by groundwater and concentrated somewhere else.
  10. The exploration process; what exploration tools are available and how the exploration geologists selects which ones to use. It also talks about exploration strategies.
  11. The final post in the Exploration Geology Course series on How are Ore Mineral Deposits Formed deals with ore resources and reserves and once the mineral deposit is discovered, the process that is taken to evaluate it and reach a go or no go decision to mine. Ore resources and reserves and deal with how resources and reserves are delineated and projects evaluated so that we can reach the decision to either build a mine or abandon the project.

More great FREE Geology Courses:

  • SyllabusDescription, procedures, and objectives of the course
  • ScheduleLinks to weekly agendas, lectures, and lab assignments 
  • Grading RubricsStandards for assessments in the course
  • BasicsExplanations of basic concepts in geology
  • Basics TablesSummary tables of basic geologic information
  • Focus PagesEssential elements of the geology of the Pacific Northwest
  • LecturesCourse lectures
  • Virtual Field SitesSelected geological field sites in the Pacific Northwest
  • GlossaryDefinitions of geological terms used in the course

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All the Elements of Geology

  1. Cutting Edge Geochemistry Detects Organic Signatures in Surficial Samples Originating from Bacterial Mineral Interactions to Locate and Identify Deeply Buried Exploration Targets
  2. Developments in Geophysical Inversion in the Last Decade
  3. Future Research Directions in Exploration Geochemistry
  4. Developments in Analytical Technology
  5. A New Method for Data Integration and Integrated Data Interpretation Self Organising Maps
  6. Comparison of Fixed Wing Airborne Electromagnetic 1D inversion methods
  7. Uganda s Nationwide Airborne Geophysical Programme
  8. Automatic Image Analysis for Mineral Exploration
  9. Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Geochemical Analysis
  10. Electromagnetic Modelling of the Cree Lake Extension Millenium Deposit with MultiLoop lll
  11. Understanding real time processes behind the development of surface geochemical expressions from ore bodies beneath cover
  12. A Program to Model and Interpret Borehole Gravity Data
  13. Using Deposit-scale Alteration and Geochemical Signatures to Explore for Analogue Deposits Implicit Ore Delineation
  14. Airborne Detection of Perfect Conductors Project Gemini
  15. Chemically pure synthetic standards for wide range analysis of oxides in geological material using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
  16. Airborne Electromagnetic and Magnetic Surveys For Ground Water Resources
  17. Development of a Borehole Gravity Meter for Mining Applications
  18. Footwall-hosted Cu-PGE (Au, Ag) Sudbury Canada Towards a new Exploration Vector
  19. Timing and Tectonic Setting of Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Bearing Terranes within the Central Mobile Belt of the Canadian Appalachians
  20. Improved 3D Geology Modelling using an Implicit Function Interpolator and Forward Modelling of Potential Field Data
  21. Prediction of Hidden Ore Bodies by New Integrated Computational Model in Marginal Lut region in East of Iran
  22. A Matlab program to invert 1D Spectral Induced Polarization data for Cole-Cole model including electromagnetic effects
  23. Simulated Annealing For Airborne EM Data Interpretation
  24. The Use of Density as a Stratigraphic and Correlative tool for the Bushveld Complex, South Africa
  25. An integrated geophysical study for orebody delineation Nash Creek New Brunswick Denoising Aerial Gamma-Ray Survey Data with Non Linear Dimensionality Reduction
  26. Crustal history and metallogenic fertility
  27. Practical Methods for Interpreting Magnetic Data Affected by Strong Remanent Magnetization
  28. Rock Property Database System
  29. Modified Geogas Survey a Potential and Practical Tool for Mineral Exploration in Areas with Exotic Overburden
  30. Modern X-ray Diffraction Techniques for Exploration and Analysis of Ore Bodies
  31. The Evaluation of Geological Exploration Samples using Multi-element Mobile Metal Ion (MMI-M) Selective Weak Extraction and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
  32. Geoscience Information Management and Access Evolution of a Key
  33. Developments in Broadband Airborne Electromagnetics in the past Decade
  34. 3D Modelling of Basement Structures in Southern Ontario A Compilation of Drillhole Magnetic and Digital Elevation Data
  35. Borehole Resistivity Logging and Tomography for Mineral Exploration
  36. Geological and statistical validation of a gold prediction model based on low density surface geochemistry and other geoscientific data Nuuk region West Greenland
  37. New Eyes on Old Data A 3-D Historical Data Integration Study in the Heath Steele Mining Camp Bathurst New Brunswick, Canada
  38. New Perspectives on Biogeochemical Exploration
  39. Processing and seismic inversion of the Intrepid seismic line at the St. Ives gold camp, Western Australia
  40. Using 3D Methods in the Management of Risk in Exploration Targeting
  41. The Impact of Government Pre-competitive Geophysical Data to the Exploration Community
  42. Optimizing Geophysical Inversions for Archean Orogenic Gold Settings
  43. An Improved Method for Trending of Features on Aeromagnetic Maps
  44. Exploration Techniques for Rare Element Pegmatite in the Bird River Greenstone Belt Southeastern Manitoba
  45. Geochemical Soil Survey for Au Exploration in the Kenieba District in Mali Africa Chelopech An Exploration Perspective Major Advances in Exploration Geochemistry
  46. Determination of flight altitude and correction of vegetation using a high resolution laser altimeter
  47. Towards Geologically Realistic Inversion Innovative TEM Exploration in Surface Exploration and Underground Mine Settings
  48. SQUID sensors for EM systems Software Workflows for 3D Quantitative Data Integration
  49. MRS New GW Geophysical Technique
  50. SEBASS imaging for Copper Porphyry and Skarn Deposits, Yerington NV
  51. 3D Geological Modelling of the Middle Proterozoic stratigraphy Belcher Islands
  52. High resolution 2D seismic imaging in the Noranda camp and implications for exploration
  53. Alteration vectoring to IOCG(U) deposits in frontier volcano-plutonic terrains Canada
  54. Seismic Delineation of the Orion South (140-141) Kimberlite, Fort à la Corne field Saskatchewan
  55. In The Shadow of a Headframe Deep Exploration Using Integrated 3-D Seismic and BHEM Aat The Louvicourt Mine Quebec
  56. Detecting Heterogeneity Near a Borehole Using Vibrator VSP Data
  57. Targeting Gold Deposits along a Regional Shear Zone-A Case Study from the Archean Golden Pride Deposits in Tanzania
  58. Geological Models Rock Properties and the 3D inversion of Geophysical Data
  59. Exploration Criteria for Appraising Geochemical Anomalies through Mapping Geochemical Systems DHMMR Coming of Age
  60. Benefits of a High Performance Airborne Gravity Gradiometer for Resource Exploration
  61. Signal to Noise Improvements in Seismoelectric Data Acquisition
  62. 3D Structural Geometry of a Thrust duplex within the Grenville Province
  63. Spatial Modelling Techniques and Data Integration Using GIS for Target Scale Gold Exploration in Finland
  64. Mantle-Derived Indicator Mineral Compositions as Applied to Diamond Exploration
  65. Recent Advances in BIF-related Iron Ore Models and Exploration Strategies
  66. Reflected and scattered seismic wavefields from the Halfmile Lake orebody, New Brunswick, Canada Ligand Based Soil Extraction Geochemistry On the Origin of the HTEM Species
  67. In-mine Exploration and Delineation Using an Integrated Approach An Integrated 3D Approach to Deep Search Exploration
  68. Kimberlite Pipe Models Significance for Exploration 50 Years of Kimberlite Geophysics A Review
  69. Seismic Exploration of Ore Deposits in Western Australia Mapping Subsurface Alteration Using Gravity and Magnetic Inversion Models
  70. 3D Data Integration for Exploration and Mine Planning
  71. Geology Works The Use of Regional Geological Maps in Exploration
  72. Ground Geophysics and Borehole Logging A Decade of Improvements
  73. 3D Geometry of the Xade Complex inferred from Gravity and Magnetic Data
  74. Application of Multi fractal Filtering in Geochemical Data Decomposing
  75. Advances in Geophysical Exploration for Uranium Deposits in the Athabasca Basin
  76. Distributed Acquisition in Electrical Geophysical Systems
  77. Detection of sulphide bodies in seismically scattering environments a modelling study
  78. Application of 3D Geochemistry to Mineral Exploration
  79. The High Resolution Airborne Geophysical Survey Programme of Namibia
  80. Modelling overburden thickness in glaciated terrain
  81. Recent Development in 2D and 3D Seismic Imaging of High-Grade Uranium Ore Deposit Related Environments in the Eastern Athabasca Basin, Canada
  82. Exploration for VMS Mineralization in Submarine Arcs
  83. An InfiniTEM Survey Leads to a New Discovery on the Coulon Property
  84. The VMS Model Advances and Application to Exploration Targeting
  85. Groundwaters in Geochemical Exploration Review of Geophysical Technology for Ni-Cu-PGE deposits
  86. Deep Exploration with EM in Boreholes Airborne Geophysics Evolution and Revolution
  87. Cretaceous Shale of Northern Alberta A New Frontier for Base Metal Exploration
  88. Major Advances in Soil Geochemical Exploration Methods for Areas of Thick Glacial Drift Cover
  89. Discovery from 3D Visualization and Quantitative Modelling
  90. The data mining approach to target generation in mature districts Advances in Geophysical Technology for VMS Exploration
  91. Empirical Models for Canadian Unconformity-Associated Uranium Deposits
  92. Geophysical Inversion for Mineral Exploration
  93. Airborne Hyperspectral Remote Sensing
  94. Air-FTG For Regional Scale Mapping Advances in Ni-Cu-PGE Sulphide Deposit Models and Implications for Exploration Technologies
  95. Geological Interpretation of Airborne Magnetic Surveys
  96. An Overview of the Use of Petrochemistry in Regional The Interpretation of Regional Geochemical Survey Data
  97. A Comparison Between Old and Recent Airborne Time Domain Electromagnetic Surveys Flown in the Chibougamau Region Eastern Canada
  98. Seismic Exploration within the Flin Flon VMS Mining Camp, Manitoba Canada
  99. Geophysical strategies for kimberlite exploration in northern Canada
  100. Airborne Gravity Gradiometry in The Search for Mineral Deposits Models and Exploration Methods for Major Gold Deposit Types
  101. Descriptive Geology and Three Dimensional Gocad Data Integration Modeling and Projection to Derive Mineralization Controls and Exploration Targets Mid way Gold Project
  102. Advances in Geological Models and Exploration Methods for Copper Gold Porphyry Deposits
  103. 3D Structural Geometry of a plunging fold within the Southern Province
  104. Remote Sensing for Mineral Exploration
  105. Geophysical Responses of Hydrothermal Rocks Associated with Copper Gold Mineralization in the Neoproterozoic Mara Rosa Magmatic Arc Central Brazil
  106. GEOPHYSICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL METHODS USED IN THE DISCOVERY OF THE ISLAND COPPER DEPOSIT, VANCOUVER ISLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA
  107. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION AT THE PINE POINT MINES LID. ZINC-LEAD PROPERTY, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES CANADA
  108. GEOPHYSICS AND GEOCHEMISTRY IN THE DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE LA CARDID PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT, SONORA, MEXICO
  109. GRAVITY METHOD APPLIED TO BASE METAL EXPLORATION
  110. GROUND ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS AND BASE METALS
  111. IZOK LAKE DEPOSIT, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, CANADA A GEOPHYSICAL CASE HISTORY
  112. LAKE SEDIMENT GEOCHEMISTRY APPLIED TO MINERAL EXPLORATION
  113. LITHOGEOCHEMISTRY IN MINERAL EXPLORATION
  114. MAGNETIC METHODS APPLIED TO BASE METAL EXPLORATION
  115. MODERN TRENDS IN MINING GEOPHYSICS AND NUCLEAR BOREHOLE LOGGING METHODS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION
  116. ON THE APPLICATION OF GEOPHYSICS IN THE INDIRECT EXPLORATION FOR COPPER SULPHATE ORES IN FINLAND
  117. PLATES
  118. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE USE AND INTERPRETATION OF DIRECT-CURRENT RESISTIVITY SURVEYS
  119. REMOTE SENSING IN THE SEARCH FOR METALLIC ORES A REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICE AND FUTURE POTENTIAL
  120. SOME ASPECTS OF INTEGRATED EXPLORATION
  121. STREAM SEDIMENT GEOCHEMISTRY
  122. THE APPLICATION OF AIRBORNE AND GROUND GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO THE SEARCH FOR MAGNETITE-QUARTZITE ASSOCIATED BASE-METAL DEPOSITS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
  123. THE APPLICATION OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE GEOCHEMISTRY IN MINERAL EXPLORATION
  124. THE APPLICATION OF SOIL SAMPLING TO GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION IN NONGLACIATED REGIONS OF THE WORLD
  125. THE DISCOVERY AND DEFINITION OF THE LESSARD BASE METAL DEPOSIT, QUEBEC
  126. THE INDUCED-POLARIZATION EXPLORATION METHOD
  127. ADVANCES IN BOTANICAL METHODS OF PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS PART 1-ADVANCES IN GEOBOTANICAL METHODS
  128. ADVANCES IN BOTANICAL METHODS OF PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS PART 2-ADVANCES IN BIOGEOCHEMICAL METHODS OF PROSPECTING
  129. AIRBORNE ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS
  130. AN OUTLINE OF MINING GEOPHYSICS AND GEOCHEMISTRY IN CHINA
  131. AN OVERVIEW OF MINING GEOPHYSICS
  132. ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY IN THE SEARCH FOR METALLIC ORES
  133. APPLICATION OF HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY TO THE SEARCH FOR BASE METALS
  134. APPLICATION OF HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY TO THE SEARCH FOR URANIUM
  135. APPLICATION OF X-RAY DIFFRACTION ALTERATION AND GEOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES AT SAN MANUEL, ARIZONA
  136. BOREHOLE LOGGING TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO BASE METAL ORE DEPOSITS
  137. COMPUTER COMPILATION AND INTERPRETATION OF GEOPHYSICAL DATA
  138. COMPUTER-BASED TECHNIQUES IN THE COMPILATION, MAPPING AND INTERPRETATION OF EXPLORATION GEOCHEMICAL DATA
  139. EXPLORATION CASE HISTORIES OF THE ISO AND NEW INSCO OREBODIES
  140. EXPLORATION DISCOVERIES, NORANDA DISTRICT, QUEBEC
  141. EXPLORATION FOR MASSIVE SULPHIDES IN DESERT AREAS USING THE GROUND PULSE ELECTROMAGNECTIC METHOD
  142. EXPLORATION OF THE REAL DE ANGELES SILVER-LEAD-ZINC SULPHIDE DEPOSIT, ZACATECAS, MEXICO
  143. FOCUS ON THE USE OF SOILS FOR GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION IN GLACIATED TERRANE
  144. GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETRIC METHODS IN URANIUM EXPLORATION-AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION
  145. GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETRIC METHODS IN URANIUM EXPLORATION-APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION
  146. GAMMA RAY SPECTROMETRIC METHODS IN URANIUM EXPLORATION-THEORY AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
  147. Geological Survey of Canada
  148. GEOLOGY-AND-ORE-DEPOSITS GEOPHYSICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL CASE HISTORY OF THE QUE RIVER DEPOSIT TASMANIA, AUSTRALIA
  149. GEOPHYSICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL METHODS FOR MAPPING GOLD-BEARING STRUCTURES IN NICARAGUA
  150. Structurally Controlled Mineralization in Australia How Seismic Profiling Helps Find Minerals
  151. Advances in Integrated Exploration For Unconformity Uranium Deposits in Western Canada
  152. Regional Geophysical Exploration in Arid Terrain
  153. The Use of the Ground Penetrating Radar in Exploration For Alluvial Diamond Deposits
  154. Sedimentary Hosted Mineral Deposits A High Resolution Seismic Survey in the Athabasca Basin
  155. Spatial Data Accuracy and its Importance to Effective Mineral Exploration
  156. Reflection Seismics for Gold, Platinum and Base Metal Exploration and Mining in Southern Africa
  157. Spectral and Microwave Remote Sensing An Evolution From Small Scale Regional Studies To Mineral Mapping And Ore Deposit Targeting
  158. Seismic Imaging with Application to Mine Layout and Development
  159. Physical Properties and Seismic Imaging of Massive Sulphides
  160. Geophysical Aspects of the Kudz Ze Kayah Massive Sulphide Discovery Southeast Yukon, Canada
  161. Geological Mapping With Multiparameter Airborne Geophysics Stream Sediment Geochemistry in Todays Exploration World
  162. The Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectrometric Response Over Arid Australian Terranes
  163. Ground Geophysical Surveys For Mine Wastes
  164. Ore Delineation in Three Dimensions
  165. The Power and Role of Geophysics applied to Regional and Site-Specific Mineral Exploration and Mine Grade Control in Outokumpu Base Metals Oy
  166. Regional Geophysics and Geochemistry as an Exploration Initiative in New South Wales Australia
  167. Mineral Potential Mapping Using an Expert System and GIS
  168. Developments in the Effect use and Interpretation of Lithogeochemistry in Regional Exploration Programs Application of GIS Technology
  169. The Application of Geophysics During Evaluation of the Century Zinc Deposit
  170. Glacial History and Ice Flow Dynamics Applied to Drift Prospecting and Geochemical Exploration
  171. Airborne Geophysical Projects in Greenland
  172. The Use of Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry by M.I.M Exploration A Case Study From The Mount Isa Inlier North West Queensland Australia
  173. Combined 3 D Interpretation of Airborne Surface and Borehole Vector Magnetics at the McConnell Nickel Deposit
  174. A Review of GIS Techniques for Handling Geoscience Data Within Australian Geological Surveys
  175. Seismic Monitoring of Mine Environments
  176. Midnorden Project, Geophysics Sub-Project Introduction to Combined Geophysical Maps of Central and Northern Fennoscandia
  177. Mapping and Monitoring Softrock Mining Remote Mapping of Mine Wastes Information from Walk-Away VSP and Cross-Hole DataUsing Various Wave Modes Tower Colliery South Sydney Basin Ground Penetrating Radar Coming of Age at Last
  178. Experiences From Shallow Reflection Seismics Over Granitic Rocks in Sweden
  179. Till Geochemical and Indicator Mineral Methods in Mineral Exploration
  180. A Comparison of Physical Property Borehole Logs With Geology, Mineralogy and Chemistry in a Borehole at Les Mines Selbaie Northwestern Quebec Canada
  181. Measured is Better
  182. Modeling the Spatial Relationship Between Lake Sediment till Geochemistry Anamolies and Kimberlites central Slave Province, NWT Effects of Sample Media and Quality Control
  183. Exploring for Nickel in the 90s, or til depth us do part
  184. Towards a Multidisciplinary Integrated Exploration Process for Gold Discovery
  185. High-Resolution Seismic and Controlled-Source EM Studies Near Thompson Manitoba
  186. Mobile Forms of Elements Their use in Geochemical Mapping and Exploration
  187. Levelling of Aeromagnetic Surveys in Canada Surveying the Path of Boreholes A Review of Developments and Methods Since 1987
  188. Reflection Seismic and Ground-Penetrating Radar Study of Previously Mined Lead-Zinc Ground in Joplin Missouri
  189. Uranium Deposits of the World
  190. Electrical Methods for Ore Body Delineation Suppressing Varying Directional Trends in Aeromagnetic Data 3 D Seismic Exploration
  191. The Application of Lake Sediment Geochemistry to Mineral Exploration Recent Advances and Examples from Canada
  192. Airborne Frequency Domain EM Review and Preview
  193. Deep Crustal Studies Based on the Analysis of Potential Field Data in Southern Australia
  194. Reducing Statistical Noise in Airborne Gamma Ray Data Through Spectral Component Analysis
  195. Geophysical Inversion Fundamentals and Applications in Mineral Exploration Problems
  196. Use and Implications of Paleoweathering Surfaces in Mineral Exploration
  197. Borehole Geophysics Exploring The Third Dimension Development of 3 D Seismic Exploration Technology for NI-CU Deposits Sudbury Basin
  198. Seismic Reflection Imaging of a Shallow, Fault-Controlled VMS Deposit in the Matagami Mining Camp, Quebec
  199. Advanced Tools and Inversion Methods for AEM Exploration Preparing for Waste Geophysics in Geotechnical and Environmental Assessments of Proposed Mine Waste Facilities
  200. Discovery of Kimberlite Pipes in the Forrest River Area, Kimberly Region Western Australia
  201. Geochemical Exploration in Areas Affected by Tropical Weathering An Industry Perspective
  202. The Formation of Surficial Geochemical Patterns Over Buried Epithermal Gold Deposits in Desert Environments Results of a Test of Partial Extraction Techniques
  203. The Cerattepe Massive Sulphide Property Northeastern Turkey
  204. Geological Map Data Management for the Bathurst Camp EXTECH-2 Project G
  205. round Waters and Surface Waters in Exploration Geochemical Surveys
  206. The Geochemical Anomaly Distinguishing Between True and False Anomalies Using GIS Technology
  207. A High Resolution Seismic Survey to Assist in Mine Planning Seismic Exploration of the Manitouwadge Greenstone Belt, Ontario
  208. Use of a Neural Network to Integrate Geoscience Information in the Classification of Mineral Deposits and Occurences
  209. Lithogeochemical and Mineralogical Methods for Base Metal and Gold Exploration
  210. The Spectrem Airborne Electromagnetic System Latest Developments and Field Examples
  211. Delivering Exploration Information On-line Using the WWW.Challanges and an Australian Experience Seismic Exploration for VMS Deposits, Matagami, Québec
  212. A Comparison of Multi Media Geochemical Data Using a GIS
  213. Airborne Geophysical Survey of the Bathurst Mining Camp
  214. Putting it all Together Surficial Geochemistry Maps for Large Areas of Canada
  215. Seismic Borehole Mapping of an Abandoned Coal Mine, Scott Air Force Base
  216. Innovative Enzyme Leach Provides Cost Effective Overburden Bedrock Penetration
  217. Geography in Metalliferous Mines for Ore Body Delineation and Rock Mass Characterisation
  218. A Crosshole Seismic Survey at the McConnell Ore Body Borehole Radar Reflection Imaging at the McConnell Nickel Deposit, Sudbury
  219. 3 D Visualization of Structural Field Data and Regional Sub Surface Modelling for Mineral Exploration
  220. Improving Exploration Efficiency by Predicting Geological Drill Core Logs With Geophysical Logs
  221. Gold Deposits and Their Geological Classification
  222. Evolution of Geological Mapping Methodology at GSC-OTTAWA
  223. Borehole Correlation in Mineral Deposits Using Geophysical Parameters Duck Pond, Newfoundland
  224. The Critical Importance of Monitoring Chemical Analyses in Frontier Exploration
  225. Electromagnetic Trends Spatial, Temporal and Economic Evolution of Regoliths and Landscapes in Deeply Weathered Terrain Implications for Geochemical Exploration
  226. State of the Art in IP and Complex Resistivity Advances in Airborne Time Domain EM Technology
  227. The Geology, Geochemistry and Geophysics of the Southeastern Flank of the Dennilton Dome Northern Province South Africa Implications for Exploration
  228. Optimization of VMS Exploration Using Downhole EM Nuclear Techniques for Ore Grade Estimation
  229. Geochemical Mass Balance of Gold Under Various Tropical Weathering Conditions Application to Exploration
  230. Full Waveform Acoustic Logging Applications in Mineral Exploration and Mining
  231. Polargraphic Logging for Mapping and Monitoring in Situ Leaching of Uranium Deposits
  232. New Methods in Geophysics to Visualize Geology in Tropical Terrains
  233. Towards Comprehensive Digital Geoscience Data Coverages for NEWFOUNDLAND and Labrador
  234. Gravity Prospecting For Massive Sulphide Deposits in the Bathurst Mining Camp, New Brunswick, Canada
  235. Induced Polarization Effects in Time Domain EM Data
  236. Overview on the Electrogeochemical Techniques
  237. Application of Borehole Geophysics to Gold Exploration
  238. Ultra-Low Radiation Intensity Spectrometric Probe for Ore Body Delineation and Grade Control of Pb-Zn Ore
  239. The Environmental Effects of Mine Wastes
  240. GIS Methods for Integrating Exploration Data Sets
  241. Field Evaluation of a Four-Component Downhole VLF-EM Logging System
  242. Geochemical Monitoring of Groundwaters, Rivers and Swamps in the Lomonosov Diamond Mine Surrounding Arkhangelsk Region Northern Russia
  243. Developments in the Standardization and Analysis of Airborne Gamma-Ray Data
  244. 3 D Inversion of Induced Polarization Data An Earth Science Information Process ESIP Model and the Data Processing and Analysis DPA Class of Geoscience Software Systems
  245. Euler Deconvolution, Past, Present and Future a Review
  246. Exploration Geochemistry Expanding Contributions To Mineral Resource Development
  247. Progress in Electrical and Electromagnetic Exploration Techniques Prospect Explorer An Exploration Neural Analysis Tool
  248. An Unusual Borehole Temperature Log From Les Mines Selbaie, Northwestern Québec, Canada
  249. Ground Geophysics Advances and Outlook
  250. Global Geochemical Baselines Their importance for the mineral industry
  251. Kimberlite Indicator Minerals in Till Central Slave Province N.W.T. Canada
  252. GSC Fieldlog V3.0 Software for Computer-Aided Geological Field Mapping
  253. Chemostratigraphic and Paleoenvironmental Analysis of Sedimentary Rocks applied to VMS Exploration Examples from the Bathurst Mining Camp New Brunswick Canada
  254. Drilling Parameters and Their Application in Mining and Exploration
  255. Distribution and Character of Gold in Weathered Till in the Flin Flon Greenstone Belt, Saskatchewan
  256. Application of High Resolution Geophysics to Mining
  257. Integration of Landsat, Geophysical, and Geological Data as an Aid to Mineral Exploration in the Manitouwadge Area, Ontario
  258. Recent Advances in Geoanalysis and Their Implications Data Evidence and the Silver Bullet
  259. The Practical Application of Remote Sensing to Mineral Exploration Examples From the Slave Craton Labrador Kalimantan Mexico and British Columbia
  260. The Integration of Geological and Potential field Data Sets
  261. The Detection of Potassic Alteration by Gamma Ray Spectrometry Recognition of Alteration Related to Mineralization
  262. Large Scale Compilation of Magnetic, Gravity Radiometric and Electromagnetic Data The new Exploration Strategy for the 90s
  263. Geophysical Exploration and Discovery of the Candelaria Copper Gold Deposit in Chile
  264. Mineral Exploration With Natural Electromagnetic Fields
  265. Les Mines Selbaie 25 Years of Discovery and Definition of a Polymetallic Base Metal Sulphide Ore Body
  266. Application of 3 D Seismics to Mine Planning at Vaal Reefs Gold Mine Number 10 Shaft Republic of South Africa
  267. Regional Airborne Geophysics and Geochemistry a Namibian Perspective
  268. Airborne Geophysics Old Methods, New Images
  269. Human resources and geophysical exploration
  270. Piercey Rambler Sulfide Report_Low_Res